This study examined the functions of markets in the rural areas of Anambra state, Nigeria. This study was carried out to enable one find out the integrative functions of markets as central places in the rural areas of the state. The objectives of the study were to: identify the integrative functions of the markets in the state and identify the communities which are in functional contact with each other on the basis of goods and services provided in the markets. Stratified random sampling procedure was adopted to choose respondents in the study area. A structured questionnaire was constructed and administered to the respondents; the computation was done using centrality coefficient and functional indices. Three hundred and ninety – nine (399) questionnaires were administered to the respondents in the study area. The data collected were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Weighted Mean, Centrality Coefficient, Functional Indices and Nearest Neighbor Analysis; the Centrality Coefficient showed that the markets play essential roles in the socio-economic life of the people and that the markets were in functional contacts with each other. While the Nearest – Neighbor Analysis indicated that the markets were randomly distributed in accordance with the distribution of settlements in the study area. The Principal Component Analysis indicated that the major function of the markets in the study area was that they serve as centers for diffusion of innovation. The researchers concluded that markets are very important in the socio-economic space of an area and that their importance lies in the fact that they provide the channels of socio-economic linkages among the rural people and between the rural economy and the urban economy. The study recommended that the state government should encourage private investors to invest in market development by putting in place adequate logistic and administrative guidelines.
The education for all (EFA) agenda is targeted at achieving inclusive education across regions of the world including developing countries (DCs). The policy is nonetheless not inclusive in the actual sense of the concept. Emphasis of the EFA on ensuring parity in the ways male and female pupils access education in formal settings restricts the policy from becoming genuinely inclusive. Inclusive education as to be a core philosophy to moving the provisions of EFA forward encourages changes to existing local cultures that disadvantage some children and young people within education systems in DCs. It begins with the belief that education is the basic human right of all and the foundation for a more just society. Thus, inclusive education draws on the idea of social inclusion to redefine the provisions of the EFA in order to ensure that education is sincerely for ‘all’ and not nearly for all in DCs.
Comparative Analysis of Differences in Women Entrepreneurship in Rural and Urban Communities in Cross River State (Published)
This study was conducted to assess disparities in women entrepreneurship in urban and rural communities in Cross River state. Specifically the study was aimed at identifying motivation for entrepreneurship by urban and rural women, identifying entrepreneurship activities engaged by urban and rural women entrepreneurs and challenges faced by urban and women entrepreneurs in the state. The study adopted survey design while cluster sampling technique was used to select samples. Questionnaires were used for data collection while percentages were used for data analysis. The study reveals that most women entrepreneurs from age category 41-45 while in rural areas, most of them were from ages of 36-40. In both areas, majority of the women were married. Majority of urban women entrepreneurs had tertiary education while in rural communities; most of the women had secondary education. Further, most of the women in urban areas were from monogamous relationships while relationships of most of rural women entrepreneurs were from polygamous. The study also found that entrepreneurship activities engaged by urban women entrepreneurs included mostly retail stores, followed by jewelry or boutiques, event management outfits, beautician shops and tailoring shops and small eateries. For the rural women, the most common business activities were agricultural business, followed by food restaurants, palm wine/beer joints and retail shops. Urban women entrepreneurs sourced their capital from mostly family, followed by personal savings, financial institutions and friends. Rural counterparts sourced capital mainly from informal financial institutions, followed by sale of crops and friends. The most common motivations for entrepreneurship for urban women entrepreneurship included the need to generate extra income while social status was the least motivation. For rural women, support their family members was the most common reason. Challenges faced by urban women entrepreneurs mostly included conflicts between business and family functions and lack of access to credit, inexperience and gender discrimination. For rural women, lack of funds, gender discrimination, government neglect in entrepreneurship programmes, low education and lack of business skills were the challenges. The study therefore recommended for opportunities for access to capital urban and rural women, involvement of rural women in entrepreneurship programmes and gender equality.
Preparing students for senior secondary school certificate examinations in Bayelsa State, Nigeria: How adequate are the available teachers in rural areas? (Published)
The study was on adequacy of teachers in secondary schools in rural areas to prepare students for Senior Secondary School Certificate Examinations (SSSCE) in Bayelsa State. Data was collected using the Infrastructure Availability Index (IAI) in terms of motorable roads, electricity supply, health facilities, educational facilities, portable drinking water, telecommunication and sanitation. Subjects offered in SSSCE were obtained from the Ministry of Education and school principals. The subjects offered and teacher/school ratio in the LGAs was used to ascertain the adequacy of quality teachers to prepare students for SSSCE. The findings showed that the mean average teacher ratio of 10 to a secondary school in rural LGAs was twice less than that of secondary schools in urban LGAs with 24. In addition, the rural secondary schools lacked adequacy of quality teachers to prepare students for the SSSCE. Thus, the performance of students in SSSCE in rural areas was affected and such students were deprived of the benefits of passing the SSSCE which will affect their employment and future academic opportunities and when seeking elective positions. The study therefore, recommended that government should ensure equitable distribution of adequate teachers in rural and urban secondary schools.