Tag Archives: Rural Area

Profiling English Language Learning Anxiety among Selected Rural Area Secondary School Students in Malaysia: A Case Study (Published)

Malaysians’ English proficiency is on a decline, and this phenomenon is extensively debated on its possible causes. With this come renewed interest towards English language anxiety as it is an internal factor of the learners which sometimes can be overlooked. An investigation was conducted on rural area secondary school students in Selangor, where the schools are already impeded by facility and resource deprivations. A total of 311 non-examination students from three different schools in Kuala Selangor, one of the rural areas in the state, were administered a questionnaire which adopted a composite of Foreign language anxiety surveys, measuring their level of anxiety towards the English language classroom according to the four language skills (reading, listening, speaking, writing). Results indicated students in the rural area secondary schools experience moderate to high levels of anxiety inside the English language classroom, in tandem with Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope (1986) definition and classification of Foreign Language Anxiety along with other pioneering works in the field. The result demonstrated the commonality of language anxiety across different demographic settings. By gauging the level of anxiety among rural area secondary school learners, targeted interventions can be implemented in order to reduce its effect on the students who already face limitations on learning resource and infrastructure.

Citation: Faizah Idrus and Tuan Muhammad Hanif Tuan Ab Hamid (2021) Profiling English Language Learning Anxiety among Selected Rural Area Secondary School Students in Malaysia: A Case Study, International Journal of English Language Teaching, Vol.9, No.1, pp.1-20

Keywords: English Language anxiety, English as a second language, Rural Area, issues in second language learning, profile, second language learning

Prevalence, Risk Factors and Perceived Effects of Alcohol Use among Young People in a Rural Local Government Area in Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

Alcohol is commonly abused and constitutes a major challenge to people’s health. Its availability makes it a drug of choice for young people to abuse. This study was designed to examine the prevalence, risk factors and perceived effects of alcohol use among young people in Oyo state. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design to study 384 young people, who were selected with a multi-stage sampling technique. Data was gathered with a structured questionnaire after its validity and reliability have been established and analysed with SPSS version 23. Findings revealed high prevalence of alcohol use both for the ever (74%) and current (66.6%) use. Alcohol intake in form of mixture with local herbs (81.2%) is the most common followed by gin and other hot drink (80.2%). The most important risk factors documented were peer influence (85.4%), easy access (63.5%) and parental influence (54.1%). Thinking less about problems (91.6%), sleep disturbance (80.2%), depression (70.8%) and euphoria (70.8%) were the common perceived psychological effects of alcohol identified by the respondents while getting into trouble (85.4%) and increased propensity to perpetuate rape (74.0%) were prominent social effects, perceived by the respondents. Therefore, preventive measures and strong public control policy is essential to curb this emerging menace

Keywords: Oyo State, Rural Area, alcohol use, perceived alcohol effects

Incidence of Domestic Violence among Married Women in Yewa South Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria (Published)

The aim of this study was to investigate the social determinants of domestic violence in rural areas as a yardstick for determining the pathways through which socio-cultural processes influence women’s susceptibility to marriage. A cross sectional research design was adopted for this study and quantitative data were collected using the Severity of Violence Against Women Scale (SAVAWS) that was developed by Marshall (1992).  Domestic abuse was discovered to be prevalently experienced in rural areas. Also, the study discovered six factors that influence the experience of domestic abuse among rural women namely: drunkenness, financial demand, rebuffed sexual advances, annoyance nature of the male partner, cultural and stereotypical beliefs of the communities as well as a combination of any of these factors. It needs to be emphasized that among these six factors, financial request was mostly pointed out as the reason domestic violence occur in rural areas, which is an indication that rural men commonly experience financial stress. This may be due to the high rate of illiteracy and unemployment among rural women as well as the extended family relationship that exist in rural communities.

Keywords: Domestic Violence, Incidence, Married Women, Rural Area, Social Determinants

Rural Senior High School Teachers Motivation and its Effect on Their Retention (Published)

This paper presents both qualitative and quantitative studies on the motivation for teachers teaching in Senior High School located in rural areas and its effects on their willingness to continue staying in those areas in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Two public Senior High Schools in the rural areas of Afigya-Kwabre West district comprising two Headmasters and 120 teachers was selected by the use of purposive and simple random sampling techniques for the study. The study focused on primary data through interview, questionnaire and observation. It was revealed that the significant retention factors are the provision and administration of financial bonuses which include retention/professional allowance and Parents and Teachers Association motivational allowance. On the other hand, the teachers were very unsatisfied with their accommodation, means of transport and criteria for selecting award winners during speech and prize giving days. Therefore, governments and policy makers need to put in place strategies and also implement policies that will serve to improve the working conditions of teachers teaching in rural areas in order to serve as motivation for their retention.

Keywords: Administration, Motivation, Retention, Rural Area, Teacher Motivation


Rural transport and infrastructure development in Nigeria have being topical issues and have been identified by many as crucial components for economic development of the country. In light of the above, the paper adopted survey method to gather data while secondary sources of data were also utilised to argument the later. A total of three hundred set of questionnaires were administered in three randomly selected communities in the study area. The analysis of the data revealed an inequality in the provision of road infrastructure and rehabilitation of roads in the area, resulting in disparities in the level of development. The poor condition of roads in the area is having negative effects on agricultural activities which is the major source of income of residents, thereby increasing the poverty rate. The study recommendations integrated rural development strategy, empowerment of the grassroots dwellers by the government to enhance grassroots development. Other recommendations include the establishment of road maintenance unit at the local government level to ensure that existing roads are kept in good condition, encourage private-public participation in rural road development and finally, community efforts should be encouraged through self-help approach

Keywords: Accessibility, Poverty, Rural Area, Self- Help Approach And Development