In efforts to provide safe and conducive environment for citizens as well as foreign nationals conducting businesses on her shores, the Nigerian state have over the years constituted several regular law enforcement and security agencies mandated to maintain law and order as well as prevent and fight insurgencies including the terrorism they characterize. The Yan Tatsine uprising during the second republic and Boko Haram extremism cum attacks of the fourth republic have however raised doubts in certain quarters on the intelligence gathering ability of these state security outfits. While some scholars and policy makers have in this light called for a total overhaul of some if not all of these governmental agencies, this paper opts to take a critical look into the role of local vigilante organizations in assisting the state in her war against terror and other violent crimes such as rape and kidnapping. Focusing on the activities of some vigilante cells in Borno State which aligned in 2013 as ‘Civilian JTF’ to rout-out Boko Haram from their communities, and adopting the group theory approach to political inquiry, this study which assesses and confirms the positive activities of the vigilantes, also calls on the government at various levels to work out a synergy of these vigilantes’ activities and those of the conventional state security forces/services for the enhancement of the entire Nigerian security system.
The Role of Sponsors in the Development of Infrastructure in Public Primary Schools in Kenya (Published)
Sponsors have a great influence in the management of public schools in Kenya. This is why they were given the mandate in the Education Act prior to the free primary education of 2003 to oversee the general management of the schools they sponsored. The study sought to establish the influence of sponsors on the management of public primary schools in Wareng Sub-County in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Informed by the study, this paper examines the influence of sponsors in the development of infrastructure in public primary schools in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey design and was guided by the Systems theoretical approach. The target population comprised all schools, head teachers, all chairpersons, sponsors’ representatives and one District Quality Assurance Standards Officer in the Sub-County. A sample size of 115 respondents was selected, which comprised 38 head teachers, 38 chairpersons, 38 sponsor representatives and one officer from the District Education Officer’s office. The participants were sampled using quota, purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Since the research was both quantitative and qualitative questionnaires, interviews and observation schedules were used to collect data. Data was analysed using descriptive statistical techniques, specifically frequencies and percentages. The results of the study revealed that sponsors no longer participate in their initial role of developing and funding public primary schools. It emerged the introduction of free primary education has brought confusion over the role of sponsors with those of the head teacher. It was, therefore, recommended that the Ministry of Education needs to review the policy on sponsoring of schools, especially on the rules and rights of sponsors.
The Role of the International Observer in Consolidation of Democracy in Nigeria: A Case of 2015 General Elections (Published)
The paper is about the General Elections in Nigeria for 2015. Its conduct and general outcomes. It elucidates on its preparation, campaign promises, party manifestoes of the two major contesting parties — the Peoples’ Democratic Party (PDP) and the All Progressives Congress (APC). Information from the electoral umpire — the Independent Electoral Commission (INEC) puts the number of registered voters at 68.8 million, but only 28.2 million were actually accredited during the elections, and exercised their franchise. The INEC took democratic consolidation a notch further by the introduction of new technologies like the voter’s card reading machines employed to authenticate the bio-data of the bearer; replacement of temporary voter’s card with the permanent voter’s card. By all indices, the election was adjudged free and fair — this much was attested to by international election monitoring teams that monitored the exercised and confirmed that despite few glitches, the exercise met with international best practice.
A Model for Planning and Implementing Curriculum Change in Private Higher Education in Botswana (Published)
This paper examined the role of academic middle managers (AMMs) in the planning and implementation of curriculum change in private higher education institutions (PHEIs) in Botswana. Drawing from various sources of literature and theoretical underpinnings, the study described how AMMs enact their role in curriculum change. A quantitative approach that used a structured questionnaire for data collection was used in the study. Results of the study showed that AMMs face numerous challenges during curriculum change which have a negative impact on their role. These challenges include lack of authority, lack of detailed job descriptions, work overloads among others. Results further showed that the following variables namely curriculum leadership, AMM job requirements, AMMs role enablers, work experience, educational levels of AMMs are important predictors of effective AMMs role in the planning and implementation of curriculum change in PHEIs and hence need to be optimized. It was also shown that gender, age, department size do not have a significant effect on the effectiveness of AMMs in their role in curriculum change while level of education and years of experience have a significant effect. Based on the results, a model for enhancing the effectiveness of AMM role in the planning and implementation of curriculum change was proposed.
The Role of Social Studies in the Promotion of Inter-Ethnic Understanding Among the People of Nigeria (Published)
Social studies education is a field of study that inculcates in the individual the ability to cope with various life problems. The paper therefore examines social studies education in the context of its importance to Nigeria’s philosophical goals as a nation, the objectives of social studies education in the school system and how they can be used to achieve inter-ethnic understanding among the people of Nigeria. Promotion of value awareness, teaching of basic level of social studies for good citizenship education, tolerance, peaceful co-existence for a proper inter-ethnic understanding among the people of Nigeria are proffered in the study.
THE ROLE OF TEACHERS’ TRAINING IN EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF LIFE SKILLS CURRICULUM IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ELDORET EAST DISTRICT, KENYA (Published)
The teacher is the most important ingredient in the effective teaching and learning and more so the life skills. It is therefore important that teachers are very well prepared to meet this new challenge of teaching life skills. The success of a teacher largely depends on his/her personal context, personal efforts and his/her general personality. These characteristics can be greatly enhanced if a teacher receives specialized training in methods of teaching life skills education programme. This prompted the author to carry out a study in life skills teaching in secondary schools in Eldoret East District in Kenya. This paper discusses the findings on how the training of teachers influences life skills education in the study area. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The techniques used to select the research sample were stratified, purposive and simple random sampling. Two hundred and forty (240) students, 45 teachers and 15 heads of humanities department were selected to participate in the study. To collect data, questionnaire and interview schedule were used. Data collected were coded in Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSSv 13.5) and analysed by non parametric Chi-square (χ2) test, descriptive statistics and frequency distribution. The findings were presented in form of tables, charts and graphs. The study revealed that teachers were not fully prepared to teach life skills and were in dire need of in-service courses for effective teaching. It was therefore recommended the Ministry of Education through KIE should facilitate in-service training of LSE teachers at least once per year and provide clear guidelines on how to teach the contents of LSE. Investigation into teachers’ classroom competence has yielded findings, which can be used for the betterment of teaching and learning of life skills in Kenyan secondary schools. Curriculum developers would find the research findings useful as they reflect on the extent in which the objectives set for the course are being achieved
THE ROLE OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS AS HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NANDI COUNTY, KENYA (Published)
Across the world, globalization has elevated the importance of human resource management development in organizations. These changes have led to the notion of the human resource system as a strategic asset. Many of the arguments about processes of globalization within the HR function rest on the assumption that there has and continues to be longitudinal change in the conduct of human resource. In order to effectively deal with all these changes, human resource professionals must develop competencies that will allow them to carry out their roles effectively, such competences like: flexibility, team work, communication, strategic planning, network building, client service, orientation, organizational awareness, self confidence, sharing of expertise, global and cultural understanding among others. This paper sought to identify the role played by school principals as Human Resource Managers in Secondary schools. The study was modeled on Burns and Stalk Contingency theory which focuses on how management systems might change in response to demands of rapidly changing environment. Survey research design was used. The target population was 140 secondary school principals drawn from Nandi County. Census sampling was used to select the study sample. Data collection was done using self-administered questionnaire. Coding of responses was done using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) for windows Version 16. Analysis of the data was done through descriptive statistics. Data was presented in form of frequency tables and charts. The study findings clearly indicated that the primary roles identified included recruitment of staff in schools, encouraging team work among staff, empowering staff and encouraging them in developing their career. Therefore the principals should have a knowhow on, how to carry out the above roles to boost the performance and development of the institution.
JOB RELATED STRESSORS AND INSTRUCTIONAL ROLE PERFORMANCE OF RADIO COMMUNICATION TEACHERS IN TECHNICAL COLLEGES IN SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA (Published)
This study examined the relationship between Job related stressors and instructional role performance of radio communication teachers in Technical Colleges in South-South Nigeria. To achieve this purpose three specific objectives, and three research hypotheses were raised. The population of the study consisted of 30 principals 74 vice principals and 104 Radio Communication teachers in all the 30 Technical Colleges in South-South Nigeria. All the subjects in the population were purposively used for the study. Data collection was done with the use of two instruments called “Job Related Stressors of Radio Communication Teachers Questionnaire (JRSRCTQ) “and Role Performance of Radio Communication Teachers Questionnaire (RPRCTQ)”. The Pearson-Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) statistic was used in testing of hypotheses at .05 alpha level. The instruments were validated by research experts in the faculty of Education University of Uyo. The instruments were subjected to Cron-bach alpha reliability estimate, the result of the analysis yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.85 for JRSRCTQ and 0.82 for RPRCTQ. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that the instructional role performance of radio communication teachers in technical colleges in South-South Nigeria was unsatisfactory. It was recommended that the Federal Ministry of Education should provide adequate instructional space in all Technical Colleges to facilitate effective learning and conducive working environment.
WHAT ROLE SHOULD THE SCHOOL, AS A LEARNING COMMUNITY, PLAY TO ENHANCE STUDENTS’ MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT AT THE SHS LEVEL? (Published)
The purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of what mathematics classrooms need to enhance students’ opportunity to learn mathematics. The study looked specifically as role should the school, as a learning community, play to enhance students’ opportunity to learn mathematics at the SHS level. The research was conducted in two districts (Gomoa West and Efutu) in the Central Region of Ghana. The study included an extensive literature survey in order to identify related studies in Ghana and other countries. The analysis was based on quantitative and qualitative data gathered in schools with similar learner demographics characteristics, including both high-achieving and low-achieving schools. The quantitative analysis was based on close-ended questionnaire issued to both students and teachers whereas the qualitative analysis was based on open-ended questionnaire also issued to both students and teachers. A semi-structured interview of Heads of Mathematics Department of the selected schools was also included in the study. The findings of this research indicated that School, in order to improve students’ mathematics learning opportunities, should:- Provide curriculum materials, Organize in-service training for teachers, Improve assessment methods, Extend short mathematics instruction periods, Improve teaching methods, Motivate mathematics teachers and recruit competent mathematics teachers. The conclusion is that, for a country to achieve the expected success in mathematics at her SHS educational level, a critical consideration should be given to the findings of this research with all stakeholders acting to fulfill its respective role.