Assessment of the Pronunciation of Saudi Students of English through Different Types of Testing Procedures (Experimental Study: Albaha University) (Published)
This paper pursues the assessment of the pronunciation of Saudi University students of English through a repertoire of testing methods including oral and paper-pencil tests. Assessment aims to measure the correspondence between these testing methods and the performance of students. An oral test and paper-pencil tests were conducted as two different testing methods to provide data in the topic at issue. Moreover, impressionistic questionnaire was distributed to both teachers and students of English to express their own point of view in relation to these testing procedures. Results revealed that Saudi score higher marks via a paper-pencil test than in an oral test. This suggests that students show poor performance in oral tests probably because the oral-based assessment of English pronunciation demands a more natural conduct from students. The use of different testing methods is more representative of the pronunciation abilities than a single method.
New Study of Watermarking Techniques for Digital Products with an Emphasis on Watermarking Techniques for Digital Images (Published)
In recent years, the significant growth of computer networks has facilitated the publication of multimedia data such as images, video, audio, etc. Digital images can be easily copied and published in the internet without the owner’s consent. There are several ways to prevent these problems; one of these methods is digital watermarking. In these methods, a watermark that can be trade mark, digital signature, and so on is inserted into the image, and the watermarked image is obtained. This image can then be published. Therefore, the image’s owner can prove a suspicious image by retrieving the watermark from watermarked image. The main objective of watermarking of digital images is to insert the watermark information in digital content as invisible and usually robust. Digital watermarking consists of two watermark insertion and extraction stages. In insertion stage, watermark is embedded in the host image and the watermarked image is obtained. In the extraction stage, watermark is extracted from the image. There are different classifications for different methods of digital watermarking. This paper studies the basic concepts of watermarking and its classifications, and at the end, common uses of watermarking are discussed.