Effects of Road Networks and Human Population Density on the Risk of Dog Bite Incidents and Rabies in Nigeria (Published)
Despite efforts made to curb its spread, occurrence of rabies has continued to persist among domestic dogs in Africa. In this study we report the results of an exploratory spatial analysis and a cross-sectional study of effects of road networks and human population density on the prevalence of dog bites and rabies in Nigeria. A total of 577 dog bite cases from 17 locations, with their affected 55 administrative areas (2015-2019), were investigated. Logistic regression models were fit to the data and odds ratios at 95% confidence intervals were estimated. There is evidence of statistical relationship between increasing number of standard roadways and an increased prevalence of dog bite and rabies. Standard roadways were significantly associated with prevalence of dog bite incidents in Nigeria. Availability of good access roads either way may contribute to the persistence of rabies in Nigeria due to massive movements of people and dogs in addition to poor attitude of dog owners towards vaccination of their dogs; or poor access to Veterinary care.
The structure of road network connectivity in any region can either promote or reduce agricultural production, market opportunities, cultural and social interactions as well as businesses and employment opportunities. This study evaluates road network connectivity in the Benue Basin of Nigeria. Data on the existing road network including type and conditions, density and length of the roads in the study area were extracted from existing road map of Nigeria, and satellite imagery of the Benue basin. The data was analysed using different methods of network connectivity analysis including beta index, alpha and gamma indices. The findings reveal four types of roads network in the basin which are grouped into three categories namely: federal highways (trunk A), state government roads (trunk B) and local government and community roads (trunk C) which are in various state of deplorable conditions. The result of connectivity analysis reveals a beta index (β) of 0.98 for the basin, alpha index of -0.05, gamma index of 0.2 which indicates that Benue basin has poor road network connectivity. A comparative analysis of road network connectivity among the five states that fall within the basin shows variation among them with Benue and Taraba states having a better connectivity than others in the region. Based on the findings, the study noted that provision of effective roads network connectivity is fundamentally important to the development and well-being of the inhabitants of the Benue basin. The current road network connectivity of the basin needs urgent attentions to reposition the region for rapid socio-economic development. The study recommends funding of road infrastructure particularly building new roads and rehabilitating the existing ones in the region by it policy makers/stakeholders considering the fact that transport is the lifeline of the economy and social interactions.