Water Pollution Scenario at River Uramurukwa Flowing Through Owerri Metropolis, Imo State, Nigeria (Published)
Pollution scenario of water from River Uramurukwa was investigated. In both rainy and dry season, 5 water samples each taken from different points were analysed to determine physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals (using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer). The investigated physico-chemical parameters for both dry and rainy season respectively ranges from: temperature (32-32.4oC, 29-29.8oC), electrical conductivity (15.67-2.00 µS/cm, 7.31-61 µS/cm), pH(5.2-5.7, 5.9-6.7), total dissolved solids (2.67-3.98 mg/L, 3.29-5.33 mg/L) and TSS (4.43-6.64 mg/L,4.88-5.84 mg/L). The analysed major ions were: sodium (Na+)(1.30-1.67 mg/L, 1.76-2.38 mg/L), potassium (K+)(0.819-0.898 mg/L, 0.08-1.89 mg/L), magnesium (Mg2+)(1.13-2.78 mg/L, 1.23-2.86 mg/L), calcium (Ca2+)(22.92-24.6 mg/L, 13.9-43.9 mg/L), nitrate (NO3–)(0.91-0.96 mg/L, 0.56-0.97 mg/L), phosphate (PO43- )(0.34-1.65 mg/L, 1.07-2.17 mg/L) and sulphate (SO42-)(23.4-24.8 mg/L, 21.02-29.18 mg/L). The investigated heavy metals were: lead (Pb), zinc (Zn)(1.2-2.63 mg/L, 1.60-3.33 mg/L), copper (Cu)(0.13-0.79 mg/L,0.001-0.61 mg/L), iron (Fe)(0.091-0.19 mg/L,0.017-1.97 mg/L), cadmium (Cd)(0.002-0.180 mg/L, 0.002-0.025 mg/L), manganese (Mn)(0.08-1.02 mg/L, 0.008-0.091 mg/L). Temperature, Ec, DO,TDS and TSS were found to compile with WHO guidelines for domestic drinking water except for pH. Cu, Mn, Fe, in the water samples were all within the recommended guidelines of FEPA and WHO for domestic water use. High concentrations of Cd, Mn and Fe were observed at point 2 while all points for Zn and Pb exhibited high concentration. Water quality Index showed the area is unpolluted and safe for use. No ecological risk was observed except for Cd and Pb. PLI was all within recommended limit except for point 2 during the dry season. It should be observed that the River is polluted with Cd and Pb, this are highly toxic metals which can cause serious health damages even at low concentration.
Water pollution has been a major environmental problem globally. This study investigated the effects of abattoir waste on the water quality of Amilimocha River in Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria. Water samples were collected from three sampling locations upstream L1, point of discharge L2, downstream L3, and a control sample L4. Samples were immediately taken to the laboratory for standard analysis. Salinity varied from (0.01 – 0.06%), conductivity (56.70 – 85.10µs/cm), DO (7.80- 8.55mg/L), BOD (3.00 – 6.21mg/L), COD (8.95 – 15.5mg/L), TDS (20.00 – 53.00mg/L), turbidity ( 23.00 – 41.50 NTU), NO3 (0.16 – 0.35mg/L), P042- ( 0.02 – 0.6mg/L), temperature ( 26.00 – 29.10oC), pH ( 6.50 – 8.20) and coliform bacteria counts (10.00 – 50.00 cfu/100ml). There was significant heterogeneity in mean variance of the water quality parameters across the sampling locations [F(31.09)>Fcrit(3.94)] at P<0.05. A further structure detection group means revealed that all the parameters contributed to the observed heterogeneity. Mean concentration of DO and BOD (8.22 0.73 and 5.10 0.37mg/L) respectively exceeded the World Health Organization 6.80 and 4.0mg/L maximum permissible limits for aquatic life. Abattoir wastes should be properly treated before disposal and freshwater systems should not serve as recipients of untreated abattoir waste.
Assessment and Control Measures of Flood Risk in Ajibode Area of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)
Flood is one of the major factors that prevent Africa’s population from escaping poverty level. The most hit by flood are usually urban poor who have less choice, but to end up living in flood prone areas. Ravaging flood events in Nigeria can be dated back to 1963 in Ibadan city, when Ogunpa River was over-flown causing loss of lives and properties. Many factors have been attributed as the resultant factors leading to floods in literature. This study thus assesses flood risk and its control measures in Ajibode area of Ibadan, Oyo state, while appropriate recommendations are made in order to reduce flood risk in the study area. In order to achieve this, questionnaires were administered through random systematic sampling technique to the household heads of 216 buildings from 720 buildings as the sampling frame of the study. Chi-square test reveals significant relationships between annual house rent and monthly income of the respondents with their vulnerability to flood with p-values of 0.00 and 0.04 respectively.
Creation of an Exceptional Natural Phenomenon of Chains of Dunes and Lagoons through a Rare Balance of Five Key Elements in the National Park Lençóis Maranhenses in the Northeast of Brazil: Sand, Rain, Wind, River and Vegetation – An Artistic Approach (Published)
During our travels in the State of Maranhão in the northeast of Brazil, we explored the region of the National Park Lençóis Maranhenses in 2012 and 2013 before crossing the park during 5 days in September 2013 with the aim to produce nature art photography and organize subsequent itinerant exhibition throughout the country and abroad. We could confirm in loco the creation and constant modification of an exceptional natural phenomenon of chains of dunes and lagoons through a rare balance of five key elements in the park: sand, rain, wind, river and vegetation. Questions were raised and answers need to be found. Where is the sand coming from? What are the roles of the tides? How is the wind transforming the dunes? What are the natural lagoons or water ponds that exist in the middle of the dunes? What is the role of the vegetation? The dunes are in constant movement, what is their annual rate of dislocation? Is the balance of the five key elements to recreate the phenomenon threatened at present time or in the future, for instant due to ongoing, negative climate changes? A special approach was taken, as the production of nature photography of the dunes and lagoons in the park allowed us to know and observe the vast park area very closely. For the consecution of the aim of the research, we collected data based on bibliographic research, extents field studies in the area of the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park in 2012 and 2013, while conducting interviews with the habitants of the three communities living in the middle of the park and realizing artistic productions of nature photography and itinerant exhibitions to accompany the process of creation of dunes and lagoons in the park. We concluded that the balance of the five key elements to recreate the phenomenon depends on some fundamental factors such as, for instant, the same direction of the steady winds throughout the year, the elevation of the groundwater level due to rainfall during the month of January until July and the drying out of the water ponds during the month of July to December. We could distinguish the existence of free dunes inside the park and the fixed dunes on the Southern borders of the park and near to the village Atins. An important role plays the vegetation, that are fixing the dunes and delimitating the area of the park as further crowing of dunes is inhibited beyond theses areas due to the fixation of the dunes by vegetation. Furthermore, vegetation can deviate the direction of the winds, which might result in some cases in accumulation of a great amount of sand where vegetation was able to fix itself on the surface of a dune (the so called shadow dunes). In the first six months, due to rainfall, elevated groundwater level causing the creation of lagoons or water ponds, the free dunes in the park are almost not migrating, whereas during the months between July and December, with the drying out of the lagoons, sinking of the groundwater level and the continuing steady winds, the free dunes are migrating and moving in average 20m per year. The change of the landscape is confirmed by members of the three families living in the middle of the park, the Paulos, the Britos and the habitants of Baixa Grande during interviews. In the dry period of the year without rainfall, algae and vegetation can be found on the bottom of the lagoons and serve as food for domestic animals as pigs, horses and sheeps that are walking free inside the park. One scenario in the future is that the crossing of the park might be prohibit by the park administration alleging environmental prejudice to the balance of the park, as well as dust left behind while camping inside the park. Based on our experience, this kind of alternative tourism is not threatening the environment, as, for instant, we did not see any remains, and nothing was left behind by ourselves during the crossing and due to the fact that only few people are entering the park by food. As the results of our research show, the exceptional natural phenomenon of chains of dunes and lagoons through a rare balance of five key elements in the park: sand, rain, wind, river and vegetation continuous to be intact and is not threatened, even not due to climate changes that occurred in this area. In recent years, it could be observed that, due to a dryer year with less rain occurrence during the month of January to July, the lagoons dried out in the subsequence months very quickly. Some lagoons contain fish. Even drying out (in the case of the not perennial water ponds) in the second half of the year and located in the middle of the park with no other water source visible next to it, the fish reappears in the following rainy season at the beginning of the year. One explanation is the possible ability of the fish to adapt to the situation by digging themselves into the sand into ground water layers where they are able to survive. Future research needs to be carried out to accompany closely the recreation and constant modification of an exceptional natural phenomenon of chains of dunes and lagoons through a rare balance of the five key elements needed.