Tag Archives: River Benue

The Relationship between surface water temperature and dissolved oxygen in River Benue at Makurdi (Published)

Poor sanitation practice is very common in the developing nations of the world as it is observed in Nigeria and River Benue at Makurdi. Waste are indiscriminately dumped in the river without recourse to the harm of the waste on the biodiversity of the river.  To access the ecological integrity of river Benue at Makurdi, water samples were collected for two years from July 2011 to June 2013. Surface water temperature and dissolved oxygen content of the water samples were determined insitu using standard measuring metres in line with standard methods. The correlation analysis between DO and surface water temperature in River Benue at Makurdi showed that correlation was significant at the brewery location   only during the course of the study. Across the study locations in river Benue during the study period indicate that the R2 valued varied from 0.0006- 0.17 indicating a very weak relationship between surface water temperature and dissolved oxygen in River Benue.  The lowest   R2 value of 0.0006 was obtained at Mikap Nigeria Ltd and the highest R2      value of 0.17 was at Brewery location during the period of the study. This results showed clearly the DO content of river Benue at Makurdi depend on the organic waste dumped in the river and not surface water temperature. It was recommended that indiscriminate dumping of waste in to river should be discouraged

Keywords: DO, Relationship, River Benue, Surface water temperature

Seasonal Variation in Hydro Chemistry of River Benue at Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria (Published)

The hydrochemistry of River Benue at Makurdi was studied for two years (July 2011-June 2013).  Water samples were collected monthly from five different Stations on the shoreline of River Benue at Makurdi. The hydrochemistry of the water samples were examined using standard methods. The results of the physico-chemical parameters indicate the river water samples with the following characteristics: conductivity ranged from 139±215.05µS/cm – 63.95±30.94µS/cm, pH varied from 6.33±0.59-6.95±0.86, TDS varied from 28.29±11.69mg/L- 69.14±106.65mg/L, TSS varied from 41.00±25.42mg/L- 87.56±57.39mg/L, colour ranged from 192.60±143.79TCU-393.01±175.73TCU, turbidity ranged from 44.53±44.28NTU – 91.38±56.54NTU, surface water temperature ranged from 28.09±1.970C – 28.99±1.630C, bicarbonate ranged from 121.98±59.13mg/L – 185.61±57.20mg/L, chloride ranged from 117.44±59.46mg/L – 173.07±71.27mg/L, nitrate ranged from 2.23±3.14mg/L – 3.76±5.22mg/L, sulphate ranged from 10.41±9.84mg/L- 17.24±15.21mg/L, phosphate ranged from 0.92±1.11mg/L- 1.47±2.07mg/L and copper ranged from 0.11±0.09mg/L- 0.31±0.34mg/L. The mean values were generally within the WHO and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality accepted maximum limit except for colour and turbidity. The result of ANOVA for all the parameters was significant during the seasons (P˂0.05), except for TDS, TSS and temperature (P˃0.05). Across the Stations temperature, bicarbonate, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate and copper were not significant (ANOVA, P˃0.05). Generally the wet seasons had more values as compared to dry months .It is recommended that the discharged of effluents and other waste into the River Benue should be controlled and enforced

Keywords: Hydrochemistry, Makurdi, River Benue, Seasonal variation

Seasonal Variation in Hydro Chemistry of River Benue at Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria (Published)

The hydrochemistry of River Benue at Makurdi was studied for two years (July 2011-June 2013). Water samples were collected monthly from five different Stations on the shoreline of River Benue at Makurdi. The hydrochemistry of the water samples were examined using standard methods. The results of the physico-chemical parameters indicate the river water samples with the following characteristics: conductivity ranged from 139±215.05µS/cm – 63.95±30.94µS/cm, pH varied from 6.33±0.59-6.95±0.86, TDS varied from 28.29±11.69mg/L- 69.14±106.65mg/L, TSS varied from 41.00±25.42mg/L- 87.56±57.39mg/L, colour ranged from 192.60±143.79TCU-393.01±175.73TCU, turbidity ranged from 44.53±44.28NTU – 91.38±56.54NTU, surface water temperature ranged from 28.09±1.970C – 28.99±1.630C, bicarbonate ranged from 121.98±59.13mg/L – 185.61±57.20mg/L, chloride ranged from 117.44±59.46mg/L – 173.07±71.27mg/L, nitrate ranged from 2.23±3.14mg/L – 3.76±5.22mg/L, sulphate ranged from 10.41±9.84mg/L- 17.24±15.21mg/L, phosphate ranged from 0.92±1.11mg/L- 1.47±2.07mg/L and copper ranged from 0.11±0.09mg/L- 0.31±0.34mg/L. The mean values were generally within the WHO and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality accepted maximum limit except for colour and turbidity. The result of ANOVA for all the parameters was significant during the seasons (P˂0.05), except for TDS, TSS and temperature (P˃0.05). Across the Stations temperature, bicarbonate, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate and copper were not significant (ANOVA, P˃0.05). Generally the wet seasons had more values as compared to dry months .It is recommended that the discharged of effluents and other waste into the River Benue should be controlled and enforced.

Keywords: Hydrochemistry, Makurdi, River Benue, Seasonal variation