Tag Archives: Risk

Critical Risks in Construction Projects in Ethiopia (Published)

Construction management is a very important process in order to achieve the objectives of every project in terms of time, cost, quality, and insured safety. But most recent studies most researchers have been focusing on the management of risks rather than identifying the critical risks involved in construction projects. This paper aims to identify the major risks associated with construction projects that expected to affect project performance during the project life cycle in Ethiopia. Various risk factors in construction projects were identified from the literature. Questionnaire survey and interview method was used to collect data from the respondents. The relative importance index (RII) was used for data analysis to identify the major variables. Based on the analysis of the likelihood of occurrence of the risks, this paper identified the critical risks in construction projects in Ethiopia. The research found that the critical risks were mainly unforeseen site conditions, improper design, incomplete contract documents, inflation, lack of timely decision making, scope change, political instability, payment delay, lack approvals, corruption, and poor contract administration. Finally conclusions made from the finding and recommendations forwarded to minimize risks in construction projects.

Keywords: Construction industry, Project Management, Risk

Knowledge on Prevention of Human Papiloma Viruses in Adolescents of the City of Mexico, 2020 (Published)

In the 2019, health is a mix of interactions between economic, biological, ethnographic, cultural and social processes, elements that have determined an integral development. Meanwhile, in the not health process it is been associated with multiple contributions related to the style, conditions and way of life of each individual and population. The prolongation of life is a consequence of global scientific development together with state, social and cultural measures that have allowed an increase in life expectancy. This investigation article is based on findings that were related to a group of adolescents and young people from Mexico City, which describe the little knowledge they have about the Human Papillomavirus and the development of Cervical Cancer, it was also identified that the population under study presents high risk behaviors, which highlights the importance of integrating effective prevention actions.

Keywords: Factors, Knowledge, Risk, Teenagers, human papillomavirus

Perceptions of Risk and Risk Management Strategies: Identifying Alternative Strategies to Promote Smallholder Vegetable Production in Cambodia (Published)

Cambodia’s vegetable sector is typically poorly managed and susceptible to a multitude of shocks preventing producers from meeting consumer demand.  Thus, consumers rely on imported vegetables from Vietnam and Thailand. The government of Cambodia is intent upon capitalizing on this demand for domestic vegetables and has shown support for farmers and marketers shifting toward the vegetable sector.  However, the government must work quickly if it wishes to assist its growers in capturing this market.  Farming is inherently risky as farmers are faced with numerous exogenous factors that can alter yields and farm income.  The implementation of risk management strategies tailored to the risk-taking behavior of the farming population can significantly reduce the impacts of these exogenous shocks.  This study assesses existing vegetable grower’s risk management strategies, their knowledge and perceptions and find that the accessibility of producer groups, savings groups, crop insurance, and contract farming can greatly mitigate the risks deemed most significant by growers. These strategies will likely exhibit high rates of adoption and can significantly reduce risks and farm profit losses.  Finally, we recommend the establishment of a crop insurance program by the government as well as an overall policy environment in which contract farming can thrive in order to support vegetable growers and meet the countries growing vegetable demand.

Keywords: Cambodia, Risk, Risk Management, Vegetable production, contract farming, crop insurance

The Role of Over-The-Counter (OTC) Derivatives in Global Financial Crisis and Corporate Failures in Recent Times and Its Regulatory Impacts (Published)

The paper examined the role played by over-the –counter (OTC) derivatives in the recent global financial crisis and corporate failures, and the extent to which these have impacted the regulation of OTC derivatives products and markets. The research methodology employed is the critical analysis of empirical literature. The findings of the paper are therefore mixed as there were divergent views as to OTC derivatives being the sole cause of the global financial crisis and corporate failures among stakeholders. The paper therefore proposed consistency in OTC derivatives reforms among countries, proper supervision by regulatory bodies over OTC participants among others.

Keywords: Financial Markets, Over - The – Counter, Regulation, Risk, derivatives, financial crisis

The Assessment of Financially Distress Projects: Major Signs, Sources and Restructuring (Published)

The significance of project finance cannot be overemphasized as there is a paradigm shift in financing capital intensive projects by both private and public entities using project finance schemes as opposed to traditional corporate finance across the world. Unfortunately, a number of such projects are engulfed into financial distress at some point in their life cycles. In order to address this issue, this paper examined the elements of project financial distress, its major signs, sources, and as well as suggesting ways to eliminate these undesirable consequences. The methodology used is the critical analysis of empirical literature. Findings of this study provide basis for addressing financial distress conditions by restructuring financially distress projects. The findings also indicate that restructuring can be looked at in four broad dimensions notably; financial, asset, operational, and managerial

Keywords: Debts, Equity, Financial Distress, Project Finance, Restructuring, Risk

The Determinants Affecting the Customs Risk Management (Crm) in Dong Nai Province (Published)

In modern customs management, the application of risk management (RM) is considered to be important. The customs risk management can identify the key areas of potential high risk of smuggling, trade fraud, tax evasion and budget deficits so that customs administrations can take effective preventive measures. At the same time, it will create favorable conditions for enterprises to obey customs law. The objective of this study is to find out various factors affecting the customs risk management (CRM) in Dong Nai province. Data surveyed 200 managers of enterprises related to Dong Nai customs. The surveying time is from 9/2017 to 3/2018. Data processed by SPSS 20.0 and method used by the multiple linear regression analysis. The research results showed there are three key factors that affecting the customs risk management (CRM) in Dong Nai province with level significance 5 percent.  

Keywords: CRM, Customs, LHU, Management, Risk

Assessment and Control Measures of Flood Risk in Ajibode Area of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

Flood is one of the major factors that prevent Africa’s population from escaping poverty level. The most hit by flood are usually urban poor who have less choice, but to end up living in flood prone areas. Ravaging flood events in Nigeria can be dated back to 1963 in Ibadan city, when Ogunpa River was over-flown causing loss of lives and properties. Many factors have been attributed as the resultant factors leading to floods in literature. This study thus assesses flood risk and its control measures in Ajibode area of Ibadan, Oyo state, while appropriate recommendations are made in order to reduce flood risk in the study area. In order to achieve this, questionnaires were administered through random systematic sampling technique to the household heads of 216 buildings from 720 buildings as the sampling frame of the study. Chi-square test reveals significant relationships between annual house rent and monthly income of the respondents with their vulnerability to flood with p-values of 0.00 and 0.04 respectively.

Keywords: Channelization, Control, Flood, Hazard, Measures, Nigeria, Risk, Urban, river

Use of Business Continuity Management to Mitigate Operational Risk: The Case of the Al-Thuwairat Construction Company, Saudi Arabia (Published)

Construction companies face a number of operational risks in their projects, ranging from the risks of changing weather conditions, to the problem of insufficiently skilled staff (Cohen & Palmer, 2004). It is essential to ensure that all of these risks are effectively identified and controlled by the risk management division. This dissertation conducts a case study of a construction company in Saudi Arabia, the Al Thuwairat Construction Company, which aims to evaluate the extent to which the company’s model of business continuity management is effective at managing operational risk. The research has been carried out based on a mixture of secondary research, a survey conducted with the company’s employees, and semi structured interviewees with people working in the company’s risk management division, in order to explore this research issue. The findings of the research suggest that, although the company’s operational risk management is effective given that it controls many of the risks with the use of legal contracts, it engages in the systematic identification of risks at the beginning of projects, and it also uses the expertise of a range of personnel who are skilled in risk identification and measurement, there are also many weaknesses. These include the fact that there is no systematic methodology for assessing the effectiveness of risk management, and that there is a lack of communication between the risk management division and the rest of the organization. A series of practical recommendations are made in the dissertation to increase the effectiveness of risk management within this company and in companies in the construction industry in general.

Keywords: Al-Thuwairat, Business, Continuity .Management, Risk

Discovering Consumer Intentions toward the Adoption of Cloud Computing In Higher Education Institutions in Kuwait (Published)

Cloud computing has grown immensely over the past few years in the Information Technology field. Optimism for supplier of cloud service and the possible risks associated with privacy and security of users is essential factors for implementation of successful and suitable cloud. Therefore, the main challenge of cloud computing is it’s perceptual and approaches. This research focuses on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), which mixes Anxiety, Optimism and Risk, to study student’s attitude and behavior toward the implementation of cloud service. The planned model was studied using the Structure Equation Model (SEM) to examine data collected by a survey of both IT experts and users. The analysis showed that three variables of Optimism, Innovativeness and perceived risk can be positively combined within the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Innovativeness were suggested to have significant positive influence on the Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU) and Perceived Usefulness (PU). On the other hand, Optimism has positive impact on the PEOU, but had no influence on PU. Moreover, Behavioral Intention is predictable by Optimism, attitude and PU. Students behavior and intentions is explainable through PR, Optimism, and Innovativeness in the projected model in Kuwait.

Keywords: Cloud Computing Service, Innovativeness, Kuwait, Optimism, Risk, Student’s Behavior, Technology Acceptance


The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of an internationalization strategy and its impact on success and business performance. To achieve this objective, data were collected through surveys using a structured questionnaire administered to 385 Polish small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that are involved in launching and developing their products in international markets. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine the reliability and validity of the measurement model, and the structural equation modeling technique was used to test the research model. The results of the study confirm that internationalization strategies of Polish SMEs are influenced by six factors that are: managerial expertise, dynamic capabilities, risk aversion, alliance capabilities, foreign market orientation and markets knowledge

Keywords: Alliance, Business, Internationalization, Management, Performance, Risk, Strategy, Success


The present study attempted to identify different types of risks embedded in sukuk structure and to determine the impact of different types of risks on return of sukuk. Further, this study has also attempted to explore the relationship between market risk, credit risk, operational risk, liquidity risk and sukuk returns. Researcher collected data from the year 2005 to 2013. Data were collected on periodic basis for determining the impact of the diverse risks on sukuk returns daily. This study analyzed the data using line charts, descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and regressions i.e. ordinary least square with F and t statistics. Results of this study revealed that NASDAQ sectorial basis sukuk index found to have four models which explain from 84% to 91 % of variations in returns. As such global sukuk return, sovereign sukuk return, corporate sukuk return and financial sukuk return are explained by 84%, 91%, 86% and 88% respectively. These results might also be affected by interest rate risk, inflation risk, dollar rate risk, maturity risk, credit risk & default risk, legal & Shari’ah compliance risk, liquidity risk, and reinvestment risk. These results provided support for the hypotheses and shown a relationship between total return and different type of risks. Since sukuk markets are becoming famous in globally developed countries which try to adopt Islamic sukuk for prevailing financial crisis, this study has many implications for the managerial and policy making level.

Keywords: Market, Performance, Return, Risk, sukuk structure


The research study focusing on determinants of return and risk performance in the GCC sukuk market structure is sparse. Therefore, present study attempts to identify different types of risks embedded in sukuk structure, to determine the impact of different types of risks on return of sukuk and to explore and analyze the relationship between market risk, credit risk, operational risk, liquidity risk and sukuk returns in GCC market. This research covers nine years sample period beginning from January 2005 to June 2013. The 2282 daily observations of adjusted closed values of each index has downloaded from websites of Nasdaq Dubai sukuk market. This study used various methods o analyze the data. Results of this study reveal that Nasdaq sukuk index sectorial basis in GCC found that 91% of the GCC sukuk returs were explains by GSKI, 92% of the GCC sukuk returns were explained by GSKC and 93% of the GCC corporate sukuk returns were explained by GSKF. This variance are due to maturity risk, Shari’ah compliance risk , liquidity risk, reinvestment risk , interest rate risk, credit risk, inflation risk and dollar rate risk. Thereby the objectives set in this study proved the relationship between total return and different type of risks. The implications of this study, limitations and areas for further research are also discussed.

Keywords: Market, Performance, Return, Risk, Structure, Sukuk


This research focuses on determinants of recent return and risk performance in the sukuk market. Therefore, this paper attempted to identify different types of risks embedded in sukuk structure and to determine the impact of different types of risks on return of sukuk analyze the relationship between risk and sukuk returns as objectives. Data were collected on periodic basis for determining the impact on daily from 2005 to 2013. This research study considered sukuk returns as dependent variable and many independent variables such as diverse risks, which are interest rate risk, inflation risk, foreign exchange risk, legal risk, Shari’ah compliance risk, credit risk, default risk, maturity risk, liquidity risk, and reinvestment risk. The data presentation and analysis using line charts and descriptive statistics followed by the correlation analysis, regressions i.e. ordinary least square (OLS) are conducted with F and t statistics.Results of this study reveal that Dow Jones maturity base confirmed that four models explain 70% to 80 % of variation such as DJ M3T sukuk return is 80%, DJ M5T sukuk return is 78%, DJ M7T sukuk return is 75% and DJ M10T sukuk return is 75%.There is relationship between market risk ,credit risk ,operational risk , liquidity risk and Sukuk returns. These results revealed that objectives set in this research study proved the relationship between total return and different type of risks. This research has implications for the managerial and policy making level. Since sukuk markets are becoming famous globally developed countries try to adopt Islamic sukuk for prevailing financial crisis

Keywords: Market, Maturity, Performance, Return, Risk


The purpose of this research is to examine the degree to which banks in Ghana use risk management practices and corporate governance in dealing with different types of risk. A modified questionnaire, divided into two parts was developed and administered to the selected banks’ board of directors, senior risk management officers and selected staff. The first part of the questionnaire covered five aspects: understanding risk and risk management, risk identification, risk assessment and analysis, risk monitoring, and corporate governance and risk management practices. This part included 32 closed-ended questions based on an interval scale. The second part consisted of two closed-ended questions based on an ordinal scale dealing with two topics: methods of risk identification, and risks facing the sampled banks. The result of the study indicated that, Board of Directors, senior staffs and not all staff are actively involved in risk management and the most important types of risk facing the sampled banks are credit risk, operating risk, solvency risk, interest rate risk, and liquidity risk. The study also found out that the sampled banks are efficient in managing risk

Keywords: Commercial Banks, Corporate Governance, Ghana, Management, Risk

The effect of Risk and Stock Market Volatility on stock return: a study of listed Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan (KSE). (Review Completed - Accepted)

This study explores the relationship between risk and return; the quantitative analysis has been carried out on all the Pharmaceutical companies listed on KSE. The research has been conducted on the basis of secondary data. The daily data has been used for analysis of last 10 years. Dependent variable is return, independent variables are market volatility which is measured by beta and the other is risk which is measured by Standard deviation. More than one thousand observations have been taken and analyzed. Results show that there is positive relationship between return and market volatility which means when volatility is higher than the return will also be higher. When Market risk premium is positive then company’s stock return will also be positive and when market risk premium is negative then return of company’s stock will also be lower. Results also show that there is positive relationship between risk and excess return

Keywords: Market Volatility, Pharmaceutical Companies (KSE), Risk, Stock Return

A Comparative Study on Performance Evaluation of Pakistani Mutual Funds (Published)

This paper evaluate and compare the performance of different categories of Pakistani mutual funds, during seven year from 2004 to 2011.Mutual funds’ performance were analyzed using various evaluation techniques; Sharpe, Treyno, Jensen’s alpha, Sortino, Information/Appraisal ratio, Fama overall performance and performance attribution analysis. The findings suggest that performance of the mutual funds measured with first five methods, does not satisfy investors’ expectations based on the risk and return, mutual funds significantly under-perform the market. Those mutual funds analyzed with the last two methods, are not offering complete diversification thus managers fell short of matching expectations consistent with the actual risk level of portfolio, they have also not made active decision involving both in allocation of assets and in selection of individual security. This study facilitates the managers and investors in taking effective investment decisions by measuring the performance of funds they can allocate resources more efficiently in future.

Keywords: Investor, Mutual funds, Pakistan, Performance, Return, Risk