The principle of relative effect of the contract with regards to third parties is presented as a limit and also a guarantee of freedom of contract.The direct effects are only those created by the stipulation in favour of third parties. The indirect effects are, on the one hand, those effects on third parties which result from the legal activity of another. English law reflects the principle of relative effect of contracts in the Doctrine of Privity of Contract. The aim of this paper is to show how this principle finds placein Community law and in national law. European law is centred on the protection of third parties to the contract constituting the company. In the Unidroit Principles, the principle only appears from an a contrario.In some legal systems, the effect ofthe contract with regard to third parties is particularly strongly regulated. In others it is only through the sanctioning of the violation of third party rights that these effects are taken into account.Within the Common law systems, it is generally admitted that the contract only produces effects between the parties, and the situation of third parties is rarely studied. The approach is different once again in those systems that are today essentially still based on Roman law.
The successful political revolutionary transformations fulfilled by the Arab Spring of 2010-11, acted as a catalyst for synchronous cultural, social and sexual changes. The ‘double revolution’ heralded the emergence of the new woman, transitioning from the docile and conservative, into a concupiscent hermaphroditic rebel, who dares to demand her sexual rights and freedom, challenge the existing norms and disclose her sexual trauma, pleasures, and desires. The body is ‘revolutionized’ and instrumentalized to resist marginalization and to propound bodily and sexual rights. There is an attempt to establish a relation between the historical events and their literary portrayal. The gender perspective of the Arab Spring is analyzed through examples of Arab women artists, whose works in literature, graffiti, blogs or social media, reflect the changes in the ‘Spring’ woman’s character, thought, and conceptualization of sex. Their opus epitomizes the new feminine subjectivities created through the intersection of gender, class, and nation.
A contract can affect a third party. However, the doctrine of privity means that, as a general rule, a contract cannot confer rights or impose obligations arising under it on any person except the parties to it. This paper deals with the theoretical and practical analysis of the contract for the benefit of a third person by which the benefit obtained from the obligation passes to the third non contractual party. Due to the particular features of this contract, it is important to examine it in detail in order to highlight the special legal nature of the contract for the benefit of the third party as a legal transaction, the elements of the contract, the characteristics, its historical development etc. Also, this paper presents a concept of the specific status of the third party. The author supports the view that the third party (the beneficiary) is an independent contractor who has specific duties and obligations as well as rights and benefits, which is an argument based on the modern theory of interdependence of legal rights and obligations.