Tag Archives: Rice

Growth and Yield Response of Lowland Rice L – 34 (Oryza Sativa L.) To Urea Fertilizer and Time of Application (Published)

Accessibility of plants to nutrient depends largely on the ease of contact between the soil and the crop. An experiment on the forms of urea fertilizer and time of application effects on the growth and yield of lowland rice (Oriza sativa) was carried out during 2013 rainy season at the National Cereal Research Institute (NCRI) Moor Plantation, Ibadan. Urea fertilizer in granule and spray were applied at 2 weeks after transplanting (WAT) and 4 weeks after transplanting in 2 x 2 factorial experiments in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) while no fertilizer served as control. Data taken include number of leaves, number of tillers, and days to fifty percent (50%) panicle initiation, number of productive tillers and weight of seed (g/plant). The result showed that leaf production and tillering was best encouraged on fertilized plots than the untreated plants. Fertilizer granule at 2 WAT significantly initiated panicle development faster than other treatments, significantly had more productive tillers/plant and seed yield (22.5 g/plant) than other treatments. Consequently, application of urea fertilizer in granule form at 2weeks after transplanting, tend to reduce nitrogen lost to denitrification in waterlogged soil and make more nutrient available for growth, will be most suitable for lowland rice production under similar soil condition.

Keywords: Denitrification, Fertilizer, Granule, Rice, Spray

Assessment Of Factors Affecting Rice (Oryza Spp.) Value Chain (Rvc) In Ogun and Niger States, Nigeria (Published)

The need to increasing rice productivity, value addition and acceptability through the rice value chain are some of the objectives of Federal Government of Nigeria in recent time. Rice is a major staple food in Nigeria. Rice production is however low which make the country to be a net importer of rice in Africa. This study was carried out to assess factors affecting rice (Oryza spp.) value chain in Ogun and Niger States, Nigeria. Multistage sampling techniques were used in the selection of 320 respondents for this study. Data collected were analyzed with chi square. Results of this research showed that more than forty percent of the respondents were between 30 – 40 years of age, predominantly male (80.3%), married (83.1%), had relatively large household size (6 people) and formal education (80.6%). Average income generated was estimated as ₦551,250/ha. They were member of Cooperative societies (66.6%), FADAMA (23.4%) and RIFAN (10%). More respondents (60%) carried out soil test and used tractor for land clearing in Niger State than in Ogun State (11.9%). Rice seeds were mostly planted on the field nursery (90%) rather than tray nursery (10%) using broadcasting method (84.4%). Hired and family labour (58.2%) was used for rice value chain in the two sampled states. Also, most operations in the rice processing were carried out manually (100%) due to non-availability of basic rice processing facilities. Marketing of rice was usually done at local markets (98.3%) at interval of 5-day marketing (72.2%) and mudu/congo (69.1%) was the item used for measurement in the market. Moreover, the returns of value addition were higher at marketing stage (₦750/kg in Ogun State and ₦550/kg in Niger State) than production stage (₦350/kg in Ogun State and ₦280/kg in Niger State). Birds’ disturbance (96.6%), high cost of processing equipment (92.5%), inadequate finance (83.1%) and lack of rural infrastructure (82.8%) were the major constraints to rice value chain in the sampled states. Chi- square analysis shows that there is significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and value addition at p < 0.05 level of significance. Similarly, significant relationship existed between threshing (χ2 = 8.35, df = 1, p = 0.00) and rice value addition at p < 0.05 level of significance. The study therefore recommends that rice farmers should embark on value addition to enhance their income from rice production.

Keywords: Assessment, Factors, Niger, Ogun, Rice, Value Chain

Holistic Survey on Damselfly (Anisoptera : Odonata)Diversity in Rice Ecosystem of Eastern India (Published)

This study highlights the richness of Damselfly (Anisoptera: Odonata) fauna associated with rice ecosystems in Eastern India.. Sampling of the Damselfly community was conducted during 2010-14 to determine species composition, abundance and distribution in 3 different habitats of rice fields which were selected at 60 m (Chakdaha), 600 m (Cooch Behar) and 1250 m (Kalimpong) respectively. Each location was surveyed at a biweekly interval after transplanting of rice plants and about 10 species of Damselfly were recorded as insect predators in rice crops of Eastern India. General morphology, biology, ecology, behavior of the Damselfly are being highlighted in the present investigation. After comparing different body parts, double branching keys are prepared for their easy identification. The studies of their diversity showed that maximum and minimum value of both Simpson and Shannon-Weiner index were at the  flowering and the vegetative stage of crop respectively. The value of Margalef index and Menhinck index  also indicated that the highest value in reproductive stage of rice crop. The studies on   Evenness index   designated that the value of E1, E2 and E3 were influenced by species richness and not evenness.  Consequently the influence of fertilizer on the incidence of  Damselfly in rice ecosystem showed that there was  a remarkable increase  of population where high doses of nitrogen (120 kg/ha) were applied followed by the use of  mix fertilizer(120:60:60 N:P:K). Although the plot receiving high doses of phosphate @ 60 kg/ha exhibited increase in the level of Damselfly population but the distribution  was least in the field where potassium fertilizer was used in both kharif (rainy) and rabi (winter) season during 2010 to 2014.The sampling of Damselfly population on weed, ratoon rice, rice fallow land exhibited  that the bund weed provided resting site for damselfly. The colonization and succession of Damselfly species in the rice field habitat showed a uniform pattern in relation to the growth stage of rice crop. At the end of study, the relevance of  Damselfly biosystematics in the context on bio diversities has  been given in its legitimate status as bio control agent of rice insect pests  in  Eastern India.

Keywords: Damselfly, Diversity, Insect pests, Predator, Rice, naiad

Traditional Enrichment of the Flour of Rice For Unearth Flours And Soya for the Confection of Weaning Four. (Published)

The aim of this work is to enrich the powder of rice with pistachio and soya in order to make a weaning food for children. In fact, some traditional methods have been used .The mixture of the powder of soya/rice(SORI ) in the one hand and pistachio/rice (PIRI) in the other hand , have been formulated and the biochemical characteristics  produced have been compared to  first Cerelac  rice of Nestle  and then to non enriched rice (NER).The enrichment of the rice obtained from the mixture of the powder of pistachio  and soya increases the quantity of proteins up to 78%  both in SORI  and PIRI.The result of these analysis shows that Cerelac rice, Soya/rice and pistachio rice contains respectively, 14.94 ± 0.07 g/100 g MS, 14.62 ± 0.5 g/100 g MS et 14.92 ± 0.8 g/100 g MS of proteins with energetically values of 434.40 ± 3.02 ; 441.72 ± 2.1 and  412.97 ± 2.8/100 g MS kcals.The powder of rice  non enriched has less protein values (8.11± 1.12 g/100 g MS ) and energetic one (336.19 ± 1.5 kcal ).The powder RNE contains less mineral and zinc values  (0.4±0.01) and iron values (1,23 ± 0,02)while the highest values founded in the witness are in zinc (3,91 ± 0,02)and in iron (3.74 ± 0.03).The powder RNE, SORI, PIRI and the witness got respectively 5.57 ± 0.6 ; 6.08 ± 0,05 ; 6.24 ± 0.18 et 6.12 ± 0.14 of  pH.  The pH of powder obtained are statistically the same in the tested sample (p ≥ 0.05 and different from RNE (p ≤ 0.05).These results show that the nutrition density of formulated diets are superior to the powder of  non enriched rice and comparable to the tested sample (Cerelac rice).These rice enriched with the powder of soya and pistachio could be used as complementary food for children

Keywords: Rice, complementary food, enriched, weaning

Analysis of Rice Profitability and Marketing Chain: The Case Study of Taluka Pano Akil District Sukkur Sindh Pakistan (Published)

The purpose of this study was to investigate rice profitability and marketing in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur Sindh. This study was based on primary data, which was collected from rice farming in study area. Analysis was done by using statistical technique like means, comparison of means and frequency distribution etc. Results shows rice farmer’s on average per acre spent a total cost of production of Rs.41910.00, this included Rs.15200.00, Rs.2350.00, Rs.2900.00, Rs.7460.00, Rs.7400.00 and Rs.6600.00 on fixed cost, Land preparation, Seed and sowing, Farm inputs, Harvesting and threshing marketing costs respectively on capital inputs. Rice farmers on average per acre gross return of Rs.80200.00, Rs.70200.00 on rice grain, Rs.10000.00 on straw in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur Sindh. The rice farmers on an average per acre earned during study, Rs.38290.00 on net income, Rs.80200.00 on gross income and Rs.41910.00 on total expenditure in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur Sindh. Rice farmers on an average per acre gross income Rs.108400.00 and total expenditure is Rs.68310.00 in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur  Sindh area therefore they availed input output ratio of 1: 1.58 from ricegrowing in the study area.  The selected rice farmers on a net income per acre earned Rs.38290.00and total expenditure Rs.41910.00 in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur Sindh area th Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world’s population. In Asia, more than 80% of the people live on rice, and their primary food security is entirely dependent on the volume of rice produced in this part of the world. However, rice production increases are now lagging behind population growth. Overall, the total global rice is declining gradually even with the extensive use of the modern varieties such as high yielding and hybrid varieties.

Keywords: Cost-Benefit Ratio, Marketing Costs, Net Returns, Profitability, Rice

Cooking And Physicochemical Properties Of Five Rice Varieties Produced In Ohaukwu Local Government Area (Published)

Four local rice varieties grown and processed in Ohaukwu and One foreign rice varieties (caprice gold) were analyzed for their cooking, chemical and physical properties. Cooking time differed with variety (p<0.05) and the ranged between 17-23 minutes. Volume expansion ratio varied from 1.67-3.67cm3. Caprice, Faro44 and Faro 15 had higher volume expansion ratio than the other varieties (P<0.05). Gelatinization time varied with variety and the range between 4-11 minutes. Caprice took a longer time to gelatinize and Faro 14 and IRR8 the shortest time. The other varieties differ (p<0.05) in their gelatinization time. Grain elongation during cooking, amount of water evaporating during cooking and solid in cooking water ranged between 0.18-0.38m, 19-42%, 0.02-0.64(g). The values for the amylose ranged between 7.6-37.2% and amylopectin ranged between 69.8-79.8%. The range of physical properties from all the varieties were, length 0.595 to 0.753m, width 0.217 to 0.287m, length/ width ration 2.188 to 3.470mm.

Keywords: Rice, Time, Varieties, cooking, gelatinization

COOKING AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FIVE RICE VARIETIES PRODUCED IN OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA (Published)

Four local rice varieties grown and processed in Ohaukwu and One foreign rice varieties (caprice gold) were analyzed for their cooking, chemical and physical properties. Cooking time differed with variety (p<0.05) and the ranged between 17-23 minutes. Volume expansion ratio varied from 1.67-3.67cm3. Caprice, Faro44 and Faro 15 had higher volume expansion ratio than the other varieties (P<0.05). Gelatinization time varied with variety and the range between 4-11 minutes. Caprice took a longer time to gelatinize and Faro 14 and IRR8 the shortest time. The other varieties differ (p<0.05) in their gelatinization time. Grain elongation during cooking, amount of water evaporating during cooking and solid in cooking water ranged between 0.18-0.38m, 19-42%, 0.02-0.64(g). The values for the amylose ranged between 7.6-37.2% and amylopectin ranged between 69.8-79.8%. The range of physical properties from all the varieties were, length 0.595 to 0.753m, width 0.217 to 0.287m, length/ width ration 2.188 to 3.470mm.

Keywords: Rice, Time, Varieties, cooking, gelatinization

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RICE PRODUCTIVITY OF FARMERS ON DIFFERENT LAND TENURE SYSTEMS IN IMO STATE (Published)

This study compared and analysed the rice productivity of farmers on different land tenure systems in Ihitte/Uboma Local Government Area. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 50 rice farmers for the study. Data were collected with a well structured questionnaire and were analysed using descriptive statistics, ordinary least squares multiple regression techniques, net farm income model, total factor productivity and the Z- test statistics. The result showed that 48% of the respondents practised the individual land tenure system. Their major method of land acquisition is through communal followed by inheritance. The average land size cultivated on was 1.98ha.The multiple regression analysis showed that factors such as sex, farming experience, method of land acquisition, annual off farm income and lease price of rice farmers influenced their landholding size. The net returns per hectare of rice farmers on communal and individual land tenure system were N8, 721.25 and N17, 327.91 respectively. The mean of the total factor productivity computed for communal and individual land tenure systems were 1.89 and 3.06 respectively. This implies that there was statistically significant difference between the productivities of rice farmers on the different land tenure systems in the study area. It is therefore concluded that with increased capital, improved varieties/technology and skilled labour, the level of profit would increase.

Keywords: Agricultural Productivity, Agriculture, Land Amendment., Land Tenure, Rice

TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY IN PADDY RICE PRODUCTION IN NIGER DELTA REGION 0F NIGERIA (Published)

This study estimated technical efficiency of rice farmers in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to sample 300 rice farmers. A stochastic frontier production function was used to estimate technical efficiency. The study further assessed the factors that affect technical efficiency of the rice farmers. All the coefficients were found to have positively influenced paddy rice productivity. The level of efficiency of rice farmers was found to be 0.63. The study further found that gender and household size were significant determinants of technical efficiency. The study therefore recommended policies that will ensure that costs of productive inputs are affordable to farmers and improving households’ income through better prices for their output. Provision of labor saving equipment is also important in reducing inefficiencies in paddy production through reduction in labor cost.

Keywords: Niger-Delta, Nigeria, Rice, Stochastic Frontier Production Function., Technical Efficiency