Africa, Democracy, and the Mortality of Jeremy Bentham’s Utilitarian Hypothesis: A Review, (Published)
This paper centers on Jeremy Bentham’s Utilitarianism as it relates to democracy in Africa. His assertion on Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that lays emphasis on happiness over pains based on the greatest outcome. His theory is relevant to democracy because he explained the right form of leadership especially the legislator in enacting laws for the benefit of the masses. Democracy entails good governance, rule of law, credible elections and making the right policies that promotes economic growth and developments. African states, since independence has fall short of these practices. Before the advent of democratic governance, most African States had experienced military rule after gaining independence from their colonial masters. Corruption and leadership failure is identified as factors militating against democratic governance in Africa. This paper suggested that leaders with the right ideologies and good policy orientation should be elected to promote democracy in Africa. More so, Africa’s political institutions and legal system should be strengthened to achieve good democratic practices.
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4°C during the 21st century, and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change. Soils are intricately linked to the atmospheric–climate system through the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic cycles. Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties, and at the same time, the soils themselves will have an effect on climate. Study of the effects of climate change on soil processes and properties is still nascent, but has revealed that climate change will impact soil organic matter dynamics, including soil organisms and the multiple soil properties that are tied to organic matter, soil water, and soil erosion. The exact direction and magnitude of those impacts will be dependent on the amount of change in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise and that this is particularly true of high latitude regions with currently permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water–CO2 level–temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and associated effects on soil organic matter dynamics is a critical need. There is also a great need for a better understanding of how soil organisms will respond to climate change because those organisms are incredibly important in a number of soil processes, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles.
It would seem that the author’s intention are to highlight and expatiate/ justify twelve (12) most common errors observed in valuations done by financial analysts, investment banks and financial consultants involved in purchase and sale of companies, mergers and the arbitrage process.
Two Sides of the Same Coin: Harmful or Helpful? A Critical Review of the Consequences of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (Published)
This paper critically examines the literature on the consequences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). More specifically it explores and summarizes the helpful and harmful effect of OCB identified in the literature. Based on the theoretical and empirical literature review the author developed a framework for understanding consequences of OCB research. Framework identifies four areas of emphasis of OCB consequences; the organizational level positive consequences, organizational level negative consequences, individual level positive consequences, and individual level negative consequences. For each emphasis area the paper discusses the theoretical frameworks used, different arguments by various scholars and summarizes the empirical research results. Although the review has found few negative outcomes of OCB, positive outcome seems to be very significance. Therefore, negative outcomes seem to be offset by positive ones. Study suggests that reducing in engagement in OCBs is not advisable, future research should focus in findings ways to reduce the negative outcomes while increasing engagement of OCBs. HR practitioners also can bring their consideration to deal with the negative effects of OCBs at workplace. The paper concludes with a discussion of emerging issues, new research directions, and practical implications of OCB consequences research. This review highlighted that although there is a growing multidisciplinary literature on OCB, much remains to be studied.
“The Roots of Romanticism” by Isaiah Berlin edited by Henry Hardy, and with a Foreword by John Gray. It is the 2nd revised edition, published in New Jersey by Princeton University Press on 29 July, 2014, paperback, 211 pages, $ 12.95, ISBN 978-0-691-15620-0.