Tag Archives: Review

Africa, Democracy, and the Mortality of Jeremy Bentham’s Utilitarian Hypothesis: A Review, (Published)

This paper centers on Jeremy Bentham’s Utilitarianism as it relates to democracy in Africa. His assertion on Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that lays emphasis on happiness over pains based on the greatest outcome. His theory is relevant to democracy because he explained the right form of leadership especially the legislator in enacting laws for the benefit of the masses. Democracy entails good governance, rule of law, credible elections and making the right policies that promotes economic growth and developments. African states, since independence has fall short of these practices. Before the advent of democratic governance, most African States had experienced military rule after gaining independence from their colonial masters. Corruption and leadership failure is identified as factors militating against democratic governance in Africa. This paper suggested that leaders with the right ideologies and good policy orientation should be elected to promote democracy in Africa. More so, Africa’s political institutions and legal system should be strengthened to achieve good democratic practices.

Keywords: Africa, Democracy, Review, mortality of Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarian hypothesis

Review on Climate change impact on soils: adaptation and Mitigation (Published)

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4°C during the 21st century, and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change. Soils  are  intricately  linked  to  the  atmospheric–climate  system  through  the  carbon,  nitrogen,  and  hydrologic cycles.  Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties, and at the same time, the soils themselves will have an effect on climate. Study of the effects of climate change  on soil processes and properties  is  still  nascent,  but  has  revealed  that  climate  change  will  impact  soil  organic  matter  dynamics, including  soil  organisms  and  the  multiple  soil  properties  that  are  tied  to  organic  matter,  soil  water,  and  soil erosion.  The  exact  direction  and  magnitude  of  those  impacts  will  be  dependent  on  the  amount  of  change  in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise and that this is particularly true of high latitude regions with currently permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water–CO2 level–temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and associated  effects  on  soil  organic  matter  dynamics  is  a  critical  need.  There  is  also  a  great  need  for  a  better understanding  of  how  soil  organisms  will  respond  to  climate  change  because  those  organisms  are  incredibly important in a number of soil processes, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles.


Keywords: Adaptation, Climate Change, Impact, Mitigation, Review, soils

Review of Pablo Fernandez’s Article on Most Common Errors in Company Valuation (Published)

It would seem that the author’s intention are to highlight and expatiate/ justify twelve (12) most common errors observed in valuations done by financial analysts, investment banks and financial consultants involved in purchase and sale of companies, mergers and the arbitrage process.

Keywords: Pablo Fernandez, Review, common errors, company valuation

Two Sides of the Same Coin: Harmful or Helpful? A Critical Review of the Consequences of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (Published)

This paper critically examines the literature on the consequences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). More specifically it explores and summarizes the helpful and harmful effect of OCB identified in the literature. Based on the theoretical and empirical literature review the author developed a framework for understanding consequences of OCB research. Framework identifies four areas of emphasis of OCB consequences; the organizational level positive consequences, organizational level negative consequences, individual level positive consequences, and individual level negative consequences. For each emphasis area the paper discusses the theoretical frameworks used, different arguments by various scholars and summarizes the empirical research results. Although the review has found few negative outcomes of OCB, positive outcome seems to be very significance. Therefore, negative outcomes seem to be offset by positive ones. Study suggests that reducing in engagement in OCBs is not advisable, future research should focus in findings ways to reduce the negative outcomes while increasing engagement of OCBs. HR practitioners also can bring their consideration to deal with the negative effects of OCBs at workplace. The paper concludes with a discussion of emerging issues, new research directions, and practical implications of OCB consequences research. This review highlighted that although there is a growing multidisciplinary literature on OCB, much remains to be studied.

Keywords: Consequences, Future Directions, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Review

A Review of Isaiah Berlin’s Book the Roots of Romanticism with a Foreword by John Gray (Published)

“The Roots of Romanticism” by Isaiah Berlin edited by Henry Hardy, and with a Foreword by John Gray. It is the 2nd revised edition, published in New Jersey by Princeton University Press on 29 July, 2014, paperback, 211 pages, $ 12.95, ISBN 978-0-691-15620-0.

Keywords: Isaiah Berlin, Review, the Roots of Romanticism