To succeed in the business world, organisations need to provide reliable and credible efforts to their stakeholders, to ensure that their business activities would not harm the safety of stakeholders in the area where they are operating. The operation of business conducts in recent time, changes drastically due to the emergence of an increasing number of external factors which impose on corporate performance. Hence, this study examined the impact of social costs on the financial performance of listed firms in Nigeria. The study adopted ex-post facto research designs. Secondary data sourced from the published annual reports of 52 firms, purposively selected for a period of 11 years (2008 to 2018), giving 572 firm-year observations. Data analysed by panel data regression of pooled OLS, random effects, fixed effects models and the Feasible General Least Squares (FGLS) regression for the objectives. Findings revealed that Social Costs (SOCO) had significant and positive effect on ROA (R2 = 0.42, β = 0.202, t(570) = 4.869, p < 0.05). In addition there is evidence that SOCO, firm age, firm size and leverage jointly exerted significant effect on ROA (Adj.R2 = 0.608, F(6, 565) = 5904.01, p < 0.05). The study concluded that social costs have a significant impact on the financial performance of listed firms in Nigeria. It recommended that the practice of elimination of social costs should be intensified by corporate firms to improve on their business reputation.
This study assesses the effect of dividend policy on the profitability of listed agro-allied companies in Nigeria. The population of the study consists of five (5) listed agro-allied companies on the Nigerian Stock Exchange as at 31/12/2018. All the listed agro-allied firms were used due to the small sample size. Secondary data were collected from the sampled firms through their published audited financial statements for 14 years ranging from 2005-2018. The ex-post facto research design was adopted with regression and descriptive analysis to determine the effect of explanatory variables. The results show that the return on assets has a positive and significant effect on dividend policy of listed agro-allied companies in Nigeria, while return on equity has a negative and significant effect on dividend policy of listed agro-allied companies in Nigeria but earnings per share have a negative and insignificant effect on dividend policy of listed agro-allied companies in Nigeria. Based on the findings, the study concludes that the dividend policy has the probability of influencing the profitability of listed agro-allied companies in Nigeria. The study, therefore, recommends that firms should adopt policy and strategy on efficient use of company assets that would enable them to generate profits to meet up with dividends payment regularly to attract more investors. This is because investors assume that a firm which pays dividend regularly is evidence that a company is healthy financially.
This study assesses the effect of dividend policy on the profitability of listed agro-allied companies in Nigeria. The population of the study consists of five (5) listed agro-allied companies on the Nigerian Stock Exchange as at 31/12/2018. All the listed agro-allied firms were used due to the small sample size. Secondary data were collected from the sampled firms through their published audited financial statements for 14 years ranging from 2005-2018. The ex-post facto research design was adopted with regression and descriptive analysis to determine the effect of explanatory variables. The results show that the return on assets has a positive and significant effect on dividend policy of listed agro-allied companies in Nigeria, while return on equity has a negative and significant effect on dividend policy of listed agro-allied companies in Nigeria but earnings per share have a negative and insignificant effect on dividend policy of listed agro-allied companies in Nigeria. Based on the findings, the study concludes that the dividend policy has the probability of influencing the profitability of listed agro-allied companies in Nigeria. The study, therefore, recommends that firms should adopt policy and strategy on efficient use of company assets that would enable them to generate profits to meet up with dividends payment regularly to attracts more investors. This is because investors assume that a firm which pays dividend regularly is evidence that a company is healthy financially.
Effect of Managerial Efficiency on Corporate Financial Performance of Quoted Nigerian Firms (Published)
Managerial skills, performance and firm characteristics are vital in organizations as such, influence the financial performance of firms. Empirical studies have shown that management of firms have difficulties balancing short and long term results leading to corporate insolvency and loss of confidence by investors. This study examined managerial efficiency and corporate financial performance of quoted Nigerian firms. Ex-post facto design was adopted for the study. The population covered 169 quoted firms as at 31st December 2017. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings revealed that ME has moderate explanatory power on variations in ROA (F(5, 895)=1065.67, Adj. R2=.1913, p˂0.05) but a weaker explanatory power on changes in Total Q (F(5, 895)=37.61, Adj. R2=.1085, p˂0.05). The study recommended that management of firms should strengthen their cost management strategies and apply cost-benefit analysis in their decisions for stakeholders’ economic decisions.
This study examined the influence of corporate governance on return on assets of quoted banks in Nigeria. The study used secondary data from 2013 to 2017.Data sourced from selected Annual Report and Accounts of three Quoted banks by the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The study utilised both Descriptive Statistics and Ordinary Least Square-Multiple Regression method with the aid of using E-view 9 to analyse the data. The results shown that, the corporate governance has significant influence on return on assets as (F-statistics = 23.46, P <0.05). The results further indicate that, the proportion of shareholders more than 10,001 share, board of composition size and bank size exerts a positive and considerable relevance to return on assets of quoted banks in Nigeria and bank size has significant influenced on return on assets with (β=2.09, t=3.94, p<0.05). Findings suggest that board of directors size of quoted banks in Nigeria should not be too large and must be meeting regularly to effectively and efficiently carry out their oversight functions and responsibilities
Corporate Farud: Causes, Effects and Deterence on Financial Institutions in Ghana (Review Completed - Accepted)
The purpose of the study is to find out the causes, effects and deterrence and prevention of corporate fraud in financial institution of Ghana. In particular, we examine the effects of fraud on firm’s financial performance. A cross sectional model was used to find the effects of financial institutions fraud on financial performance. It was revealed that, fraud has a significant negative effects on financial performance i.e. Return on Assets of financial institutions in Ghana. However, structured questionnaires was also used to find out the perception of Accountants, Auditors and management on the main causes of banking fraud and deterrence and prevention methods in curbing the menace. It was revealed that weaker internal control, inadequate training and fraud policies, failed Documents and proper Remuneration are the strong arsenal that causes fraud in financial institutions of Ghana. Moreover, organizational use of password protection, Good Remuneration, Employees background Checks, adequate fraud training were perceived as the most deterrence and prevention method in fighting fraud in financial institutions. Our results have practical implication for management, accountants, Auditors and all stakeholders in financial institutions on the effects of fraud on firms financial performance and in mounting fool proof methods in curbing this canker and reducing it to bearest minimum. The study contributes deterrence and prevention methods aim at improving it effectiveness in reducing fraud in Ghana and West Africa.
The major objective of the study is to develop a model and to test the relationship among liquidity risk and firm performance through its facets. The main facets of firm performance in the study are i-e profitability, firm size, leverage, share prices and earnings on assets. The present study mainly attempts to analyses qualitative, quantitative & contextual relationship of liquidity risk in Pakistan. Moreover, liquidity risk is less investigated in Pakistan and mainly regarding Islamic banking sector with respect to current data. Therefore, study is mainly investigated on the fourth pillar of significance i-e contextual significance. While, Islamic banking sector of Pakistan is investigated in current study. And the data is acquired from state bank of Pakistan database and through annual reports of the banks. Though, the study has supported past investigations results. Hence, the study has revealed key findings that will be fruitful for theorists, educationists and research scholars as well.
Empirical Study on the Impact of Corporate Governance Practices on Performance: Evidence from SMES in an Emerging Economy (Published)
The study examined the impact of corporate governance practices on the performance of SMEs in Ghana. Both descriptive and correlational research design were employed for the study. Convenience sampling technique was used to select one hundred (100) SMEs from two regions in Ghana. The study utilised the annual reports of the SMEs from 2012 to 2016 financial years. Net profit margin (NPM) and return on assets (ROA) were used as proxies for performance and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression model was used to estimate the level of impact of corporate governance on the performance of SMEs in Ghana. The study found empirical evidence to support the view that the board size (BS) has a negative impact on NPM, though insignificant. In addition, the evidence obtained indicate that board gender (BG) and management ownership (MO), all have positive impact on NPM. The evidence also showed that role difference for CEO and board chairman (DR) has a negative and positive impact on both ROA and ROE. Similarly, the results showed that board size (BS) has an insignificant negative impact on ROA. Additionally, it was ascertained that board gender (BG) and management ownership (MO) have positive impact on ROA, though the level of impact of board gender (BG) and management ownership (MO) are statistically insignificant. The results further provide evidence that the control variables: firm age (Fage) and industry of the firms (FInd) have a significant positive impact on both NPM and ROA. Generally, the evidence obtained show that corporate governance has positive but insignificant impact on performance of SMEs.
This paper appraised the effect of intellectual capital on financial performance of firms in Nigeria using the banking industry. The research used the Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC) to ascertain the extent that intellectual capital indices affect financial performance of three Nigeria. Data were collected from the published annual financial statements of the three banks and analyzed using regression tool. The study indicates that IC has a positive and significant effect on banks’ financial performances of the banks but some are not significant. The results further showed that the banks are statistically different in both the intellectual capital and its financial performance indicators. It also shows that the banks with high IC also show high financial performance. The study recommends banks in Nigeria invest vigorously in development of their human capital as a key driver of firm’s performance. They should also provide the infrastructures needed for to achieve a virile human capital in the system.
Effect of Sustainability Accounting and Reporting on Financial Performance of Firms in Nigeria Brewery Sector (Published)
This paper evaluates the effect of sustainability accounting on the financial performance of listed manufacturing firms in Nigeria. Firms used for the study were chosen from the Nigerian brewery sector. Data were sourced from the financial statements of three sampled firms. Data were analysed using the ordinary linear regression. The study reveals that sustainability reporting has positive and significant effect on financial performance of firms studied. Following the findings, the study recommends that firms in Nigeria should invest reasonable amount of their earnings on sustainability activities while specific accounting templates be articulated by professional accounting regulating bodies to guide firms’ reportage on sustainability activities. The Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria (FRC) and others alike should make sustainability reporting compulsory while adequate sanctions are spelt out and enforced on defaulting organizations to serve as a deterrent
Managerial and Controlling Ownership, Profitability, Firm Size and Financial Leverage in Nigeria (Published)
An ordinary least squares regression test of sample of firms in manufacturing and services industries sorted into overall, low and high managerial and controlling interests (MCOWN), shows financial leverage (FL) as an increasing (decreasing) function of MCOWN, for firms with low (high) MCOWN and service (manufacturing) industry, and negatively (positively) related to profitability and size for firms with high (low) MCOWN. Result suggests increasing (decreasing) use of debt capital when MCOWN is low (high) and that the higher (lower) the MCOWN, the greater (lesser) the agency cost contradicting the notion that FL is a governance mechanism that mitigates agency problem
Impact of Working Capital Management on Firm’s Profitability: A Case from Food Sector of Pakistan (Published)
The main aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between working capital management (WCM) and firm’s profitability in the Food sector of Pakistan. WCM plays an important role in firm’s financial management decisions. An optimal (WCM) is expected to contribute positively to the creation of firm’s value and enhancement of its profitability. Return on assets (ROA) is used as dependent variable while different independent variables are also used. Working capital, current asset to total asset ratios’ debt to equity ratio, current ratio and capital size of the firm are used independent variables. These variables are also used to investigate their effect on profitability (net income). A sample size of 5 major food companies in Pakistan has been selected from balance sheet analysis of state bank of Pakistan for a period of five years, from 2012 to 2016. The relationship between (WCM) efficiency and profitability is examined using correlation, regression analyses. The results show a strong positive significant relationship between (WCM) and firm’s profitability in Pakistan’s Food sector.
The Relationship between Financial Ratio Analysis and Corporate Profitability: A Study of Selected Quoted Oil and Gas Companies in Nigeria (Published)
The title of this work is the relationship between financial ratio analysis and corporate profitability: a study of selected quoted oil and gas companies in Nigeria. The issue of deciding on an effective financial ratio analysis for corporate profitability has been a major problem of most oil and gas companies in Nigeria. The successful selection and use of appropriate planning tool is one of the key elements of a firm’s financial strategy. Therefore, proper care and attention need to be given while such decision is taken. Thus, financial ratio analysis relationship has been discovered as having immense potentials to help organization in improving their revenue generation ability as well as minimization of costs. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between financial ratio analysis and corporate profitability of Nigeria oil and gas industry over a period of five (5) years (2008-2012). This work employed five (5) financial ratio analysis such as total assets turnover ratio (TATR), debt equity ratio (DER), debtor’s turnover ratio (DTR), interest coverage (IC) and creditors’ turnover ratio (CTR) in determining their relationship and effect on corporate profitability (Return on assets) of oil and gas companies in Nigeria. The ex-post facts research design was used in this study. Corporate profitability as a dependent variable is represented by return on assets (ROA) while financial ratio analysis stand as TATR, DTR, DER, IC and CTR for independent variables. The data were obtained from the financial account and annual reports (both statement of comprehensive income and statement of financial position) of the selected quoted oil and gas companies on the Nigeria stock exchange (NSE). Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and regressions were employed to find out the relationship between the variables and their effect on corporate profitability. The results of the analysis shows that total assets turnover ratio (TATR), debtor’s turnover ratio (DTR) and interest coverage (IC) have positive relationship and statistically significant with corporate profitability while debt equity ratio (DER) and creditor’s turnover ratio (CTR) have negative relationship and statistically insignificant with corporate profitability in the Nigeria oil and gas industry. The analysis also revealed that the debtor’s turnover ratio (DTR) has positive relationship and statistically significant with total assets turnover ratio (TATR) and IC have effect on corporate profitability while DTR, DER and CTR have no effect on corporate profitability in quoted oil and gas companies in Nigeria. The results further suggested that only 46.9% of the variations on the dependent variable were caused by the independent variables in our model suggesting that 53.1% of the variations in corporate profitability were caused by other factors outside our model. Based on the other findings, the researcher recommends that the management should not make use of debt finance in the performance of their growth. The study also recommend that creditor’s and purchases must be equal in order to take the advantage of credit facility and any discount associated with prompt payment for products to increase the corporate profitability. Management should utilize its assets efficiently in order to generate more income for the company.
The Effect of Dividend Payout on Performance Evaluation: Evidence of Quoted Cement Companies in Nigeria (Published)
The issue of dividend payout is a very important matter in the current business environment and more especially on the performance evaluation of firms’. The dividend payment decisions of firms are the primary element of any corporate policy which is basically the benefit of shareholders in return for investing their money in the organization. The successful selection and use of appropriate dividend policy is one of the key elements of the firm’s performance evaluation. Hence, proper care and attention need to be given when such decision is taken. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of dividend payout on performance evaluation of quoted cement companies in Nigeria over the past twelve (12) years period from 2003 to 2014. The researcher employed four (4) variables for the analyses such as: Dividend Payout Ratio (DPR); Return on Capital Employed (ROCE); Return on Assets (ROA) and Return on Equity (ROE). Performance evaluation as dependent variable is represented by Return on Capital Employed (ROCE); Return on Assets (ROA) and Return on Equity (ROE) while Dividend Payout stands as Dividend Payout Ratio (DPR) for independent variable. Secondary data were obtained from the financial statements (Statement of Comprehensive income and Statement of Financial Position) of the selected quoted cement companies in Nigeria on Nigerian Stock Exchange. The model specification for the analysis of data is ordinary least squares techniques applied as panel estimation while descriptive research method and simple linear regression for the analyses. The researchers’ empirical results suggest that dividend payout ratio (DPR) has positive relationship with all the dependent variables (ROCE, ROA and ROE) used for this study; that dividend payout ratio (DPR) has statistically significant with Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) and Return on Asset (ROA) while DPR has statistically insignificant with Return on Equity (ROE) of quoted cement companies in Nigeria and that R2 of all the dependent variables (Return on Capital Employed; Return on Assets and Return on Equity) used for this study were affected by other variables outside our model. It further revealed that dividend payout ratio (DPR) has statistically effect on Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) and Return on Assets (ROA) of quoted cement companies in Nigeria while DPR has no statistically effect on Return on Equity (ROE) of quoted cement companies in Nigeria. Based on this, we recommend that management should improve on their Return on Assets (ROA) and Return on Equity (ROE) as they are of great important in the valuation of performance evaluation of quoted cement companies in Nigeria; adopt optimal dividend policy that would better the lots of shareholders both in the short-run and long-run; devote adequate time in designing a dividend policy that will enhance firm’s performance and shareholder value and adopted good dividend payout policies in order to reduce agency cost and maximise the value of the company and attract more investors.
Assessing the Impact of Liquidity and Profitability Ratios on Growth of Profits in Pharmaceutical Firms in Nigeri (Published)
This paper assesses the impact of liquidity and profitability ratios on growth of profits in Pharmaceutical firms in Nigeria. Eight ratios: acid test, current ratio, net working Capital. Return on assets, returns on capital employed, returns on equity, gross profit ratio and net profit ratio were regressed against the dependent variable growth of profit. Haussmann test was conducted to choose between Fixed Effect and Random Effects model. Results justified the use of Fixed Effect model. Test results indicate significant contributions of all the variables to profit growth of pharmaceutical companies in Nigeria implying that continued improvement in the variables can lead to increases in growth of profit by the Pharmaceutical firms.
ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF CREDIT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF Smes IN SOKOTO METROPOLIS OF SOKOTO STATE OF NIGERIA (Published)
This paper analyses the impact of credit on the performance of SMEs in Sokoto metropolis the capital city of Sokoto State of Nigeria. This research is important in the sense that it may provide feedback on government programs and policies on SMEs finance. The research uses primary data collected from 294 respondents out of a population of 1710 registered SMEs in Sokoto metropolis using the random sampling technique. Regression analyses were used to analyse the data. The result shows credit is a major determinant of employment generation of SMEs. It is therefore recommended that is that policy makers should continue to formulate policies that will compile banks to increase credit to SMEs and reduce interest rate on the loan.