Divine retribution is both a teaching and a core-tenet in Islam. A large portion of Qur’anic texts come to embody the righteous judgment of the Almighty Allah, His gracious as well as wrath character. This paper is an attempt to pinpoint the stylistic devices and features of retribution in Qur’anic texts. It aims to identify the stylistic phonological, syntactic, and semantic devices of retribution in Qur’anic texts and find out the functions of each. Furthermore, it aims to explain the overall functions the Qur’anic texts of retribution perform and how the overall function of these texts and the functions of the utilized stylistic devices work as a unit to produce a stylistic interpretation to these texts. It is hypothesized that Qur’anic texts of retribution utilize specific stylistic phonological, syntactic, and semantic devices. Besides, it is hypothesized that the functions these devices perform fall in line with the overall functions the Qur’anic texts of retribution have. A model is developed to analyze the Qur’anic texts of retribution. The findings of the analysis validate the hypotheses mentioned above.
The Causal Correlation of Sin and Suffering (Published)
The paper analyzed the causal relation of sin and suffering, including illness. Modern/postmodern societal perception of suffering, and relationship with ill persons was studied. In addition, the Bible (the Books of Job and Luke) was investigated on the subject. The idea is to use Jesus’ actions and teachings as the assessment criteria. The study is important because it may help minimize or stop the practice of wrong accusations against victims who suffer in any way that their plight is their own doing. The findings of the paper are that: to a great extent people’s perception of illness or suffering in modern/postmodern society and that of the biblical times are similar despite the enormous social and historical gap between both eras. Illness or suffering is seen as a reflection of the sinful state of the victim. This explains why people disassociate with victims of ‘disgraceful’ illnesses. The study concludes that to a large extent, modern perception of illness, particularly, of the debilitating ones, as well as relationship with victims are unethical because it does not tally with that of Jesus whose way of life, actions and teachings form the fons et culmen of Christian ethics and therefore, must be corrected.