This paper attempts to explore how successful Charlotte Bronte is in creating for her novel Jane Eyre a heroine of her age, dramatizing her own autobiography, including social problems that she encountered as a woman during the Victorian era. And how she can tackle and address many nineteenth century Victorian social problems such as class and gender inequality, race prejudice, and religious beliefs. The research uses the descriptive analytical method, and in it is revealed that Bronte has deliberately created Jane, the main character along with other female characters to refute Victorian inherited conventions that treated women unfairly, many critics and writers think and confirm that women were oppressed during Victorian era. Bronte made an innovation by raising a powerful, passionate, female character who can articulate her thought, and fight for her rights. This portrayal contracts with the real women images of Victorian time, who were oppressed and marginalized by men. It is sum up that Charlotte Bronte revolts against the inequality between men and women during the nineteenth century, she portrays this rejection in the Jane Eyre’s resistant behavior.
Since petroleum production began, pollution of natural environments by crude oil and its products had been devastitating; exposure of microorganisms to the crude oil contamination could have some measurable effects on soil microbial community and in turn alter soil fertility. This study therefore focused on the response of fungi to diesel oil contamination in a soil. Soil samples (3kg weight) were contaminated with 90ml, 180ml, and 270ml volumes of diesel oil; uncontaminated soil (0ml volume) served as control. Microbiological analysis of the soil samples was carryout on saboraud dextrose agar and mineral salts oil ager at days 1, 7, 14 and 21 intervals after addition of diesel oil to the soils. Mean counts of heterotrophic fungi (X103CFU G-1 soil) were: 0ml, 7.0, 90ml, 4.5, 180ml, 4.5, and 270ml, 4.0. Mean densities of hydrocarbon-utilizing fungi (X102CFU G-1 soil) for 0ml, 90ml, 180ml, and 270ml soil options were: 5.0, 3.5, 6.8 and 3.0 respectively. Fungal organisms isolated include Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus species, Fusarium species, Mucor species, Rhizopus species and Saccharomyces species, which occurred in control soil and polluted soils but Mucor species did not occur in 90ml soil option. The study showed that heterotrophic fungi responded negatively to addition of diesel oil to soil while hydrocarbon-utilizing fungi showed both positive and negative response depending on the volume of diesel added to soil. Occurrence of fungal organisms in polluted soils explained the fact that fungi are capable of utilizing diesel oil and can be used in cleanup operations in crude oil spillage sites.