States go into treatises in order to permit the nationals of one state to invest in another for mutual economic benefit and advancement. These treaties notwithstanding, disputes do come up as a result of the human tendencies and complexity of commerce. In Nigeria, certain statute such as law governing recognition and enforcement of arbitral agreement, law governing arbitration agreement, law governing substantive issues, law governing recognition and enforcement of award and the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1988 (ACA) and arbitration under Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission (NIPC) makes provision for arbitration in the amicable settlement of investment disputes. This study therefore reveals that for the aim of having a uniform framework for the settlement of investment disputes, the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Dispute (ICSID) was created. The study also reveals that some of the statute prescribe mandatory arbitration and as such negates agreement and party autonomy. The article recommends that the statutes be reformed to be in line with jurisprudence of arbitration.
The United Nations Leadership Role in Solving the Western Sahara Conflict: Progress, or Delays for Peace (Published)
This essay evaluates the United Nations’ (UN) involvement and efforts in Western Sahara, and assesses its perceived effectiveness in settling this conflict in the post-Cold War international order. The dispute in Western Sahara is the most protracted conflict in the history of the UN. Its settlement would provide a crucial platform for the progress of other unresolved conflicts under UN auspices. As a mediator and an intervening party, the UN has played a major role in the dispute, especially since the establishment of the UN Mission for Western Sahara, MINURSO. After outlining the history of the Western Sahara conflict, this paper elucidates the stages the UN has managed therein, and clarifies the reasons and motives behind the deadlock in the Sahara. The UN’s efforts are evaluated, and the negotiating perspectives of the concerned parties in the conflict and role of Algeria, which considers itself not formally part of the conflict despite its role in preserving the current impasse, analysed.
Counselling Implications of Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State (Published)
The study investigated the counselling implications of conflict and conflict resolution in secondary schools in Ebonyi State. Specifically the study assessed the extent to which school principals adopt dialogue, arbitration, third party and sanction in conflict resolution in their schools. The population for this study consisted of all the principals of public Secondary Schools numbering one hundred and fourty-seven (147), and the entire population was used. Four research questions and one null hypothesis guided the study. The instrument for data collection was a four point modified likert-type questionnaire – conflict resolution assessment scale (CRAS), while the data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for the research questions and t-test for the hypothesis. The findings showed that while sanction was used to a great extent, dialogue, arbitration and third party were used to a low extent. Again, gender of principals does not significantly influence the type of conflict resolution method used. The counselling implications of the findings were outlined including: the fact that people have problems which should not be taken for granted or sub-summed in their conflict. Recommendations were also made for example that Government officials who relate with the school authority should also be involved in dialogue, arbitration and third party methods of conflict resolution instead of just using sanction as the only option.