The Derivation and Choice of Appropriate Test Statistic (Z, t, F and Chi-Square Test) in Research Methodology (Published)
The main objective of this paper is to choose an appropriate test statistic for research methodology. Specifically, this article tries to explore the concept of statistical hypothesis test, derivation of the test statistic and its role on research methodology. It also try to show the basic formulating and testing of hypothesis using test statistic since choosing appropriate test statistic is the most important tool of research. To test a hypothesis various statistical test like Z-test, Student’s t-test, F test (like ANOVA), Chi square test were identified. In testing the mean of a population or comparing the means from two continuous populations, the z-test and t-test were used, while the F test is used for comparing more than two means and equality of variance. The chi-square test was used for testing independence, goodness of fit and population variance of single sample in categorical data. Therefore, choosing an appropriate test statistic gives valid results about hypothesis testing.
An Investigative Look into Innovative Methods and Creative Approaches in English Literary Research (Published)
This article is proposed as a starting cross-sectional-investigation of research in English writing. It is implied for those inspired by English writing of all levels. It covers the logical technique for English writing research, including inquiries of how to define an examination issue, how to accumulate references and how to really compose and explore research, remembering that exploration is a constantly changing process. It is the trust of the writer that perusers will discover the works outlined in this article, notwithstanding the examination apparatuses they talk about, helpful. Besides, this study is expected as a commitment to the subject of English writing research approach overall.
This current research aims to investigate current linguistics theories in an attempt to probe the research methodology employed in achieving their own hypotheses. It deals with the problem of handling linguistic research data within these theories. Hence, it discusses well known macro paradigms in linguistic metatheory: the inductivist, deductivist and hypodeductivist approaches as being employed by structuralism and functionalism. It concludes that a single approach is not entirely justified, therefore other approaches would be necessary in decision making of an outstanding problem in research methodology