Awareness and Attitude towards Utilization of Reproductive Health Services among Adolescents in Calabar Municipality (Published)
Purpose: The main focus of this study was awareness and attitude towards utilization of Reproductive health services among adolescents in Calabar Municipality. Objectives: In order to successfully carry out the study, the following objectives were formulated to guide the study. To determine the level of awareness of adolescents towards utilization of reproductive health services in Calabar municipality. To assess the attitudes of adolescents towards utilization of reproductive health services in Calabar municipality. To identify the barriers of adolescents towards utilization of reproductive health services in Calabar municipality. Literature: Literature, was reviewed based on the research variables, Methods: the research instrument used in collecting data for analysis was a questionnaire which was administered on one hundred and fifty (150) adolescents in Calabar Municipality who served as sample for the study. Their responses were analyzed using frequencies, percentage and Pearson product moment correlation analysis and the following results were obtained. Results: in table 3 indicate that 50(33.3%) of the respondents strongly agreed that they did not like reproductive health services because of its complications to health while 3(2%) agreed, 84(56%) of the respondents strongly disagreed while 13 (8.6%) of the respondents disagreed. 40(26.6%) of the respondents strongly agreed, that they like reproductive health services because it prevents unwanted pregnancy, 44(29.3) disagreed, 60(40) of the respondents strongly disagreed while 6(4%) disagreed. 8(26.6%) strongly agreed that they love going to hospital because the nurses there will explain different methods of reproductive health services to them 90(60%) agreed, while 2(1.3%) strongly disagreed, 50(33.3%) disagreed. 80(53.5%) of the respondents strongly agreed that they love reproductive health services because they do not want to be pregnant, 8(5.3%) agreed, 60(40%) strongly disagreed and 2(1.3%) disagreed. 30(20%) of the respondents strongly disagreed that most adolescent choose the wrong method because it offers an appropriate method to each adolescent 30(20%) disagreed while 45(30%) agreed, 45(30%) strongly agreed. 45(30%) of the respondents strongly agreed that most women choose the wrong method because of improper counseling based on culture religion and ignorance 30(20) agreed while 30(20%) strongly disagreed and 45(30%) disagreed. Conclusion: Reproductive health services were accessible to adolescents in Calabar Municipality. And most adolescents were aware of the reproductive health services but fail to utilize it. There is no significant relationship between attitude of reproductive health services and adolescents utilization of reproductive health; Reproductive health services were available to the public for use. There is no significant relationship between barriers of reproductive health services and adolescents utilization of reproductive health services. Nevertheless, it was concluded that Local Government authorities should organize enlightenment campaigns, to educate adolescents in the area on the importance of reproductive health services.
Determinants of Social Network Site Preferences for Accessing Reproductive Health Information among University Students in Nairobi (Published)
In Kenya, the youth represent 35% of the total population. The youth have been found to be very sexually active and experimental. For these youth to navigate this stage successfully there is a need to ensure they have adequate access to reproductive health information. There exist mechanism put in place by the government and other stakeholders to address the communication of health information to the youth. However, these methods are still inadequate. With the access to the internet through mobile phones and primarily by the youth being on the rise, there is growing interest in research on how social networking sites (SNS) can be integrated to the provision of health information to the young people which the study sought to address. This study was anchored on the uses and Gratification Theory and the Technology Acceptance Model. The study adopted a mixed research design method combining both quantitative and qualitative data. The study found out that gratification, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness with gender as a moderating factor affect the preference of choice of social networking site for access of health information among the university student in Nairobi county.
Reproductive health education is an imperative issue in Ghana and other emerging economies. This is an educative effort that must be of concern to all educators seeking a more equitable society. The discussion of reproductive health issues in Ghana is not as transparent as it should be. When issues of reproductive health are discussed, those involved in the discussion are branded “spoilt” or not cultured. Consequently, most people are not comfortable discussing issues of reproductive health. It is in recent times that some non-governmental organizations, Ghana health service and some educational institutions have intensified reproductive health education with the focus of reducing teenage pregnancy, sexual harassment and rape. The objective of reproductive health education in the university is to help students to develop and improve on knowledge, attitude and practices that are appropriate for health and longetivity. Issues on reproduction health are vital for ensuring quality health and wellbeing. This chapter is in two sections. Practical considerations to the study of reproductive health with emphasis on initiating topics in reproductive health and establishing teacher-student rapport in the course of teaching reproductive health. The second section focuses on Social Studies level 100 student teachers pre and post experiences on reproductive health lessons in university in Winneba in the Central Region of Ghana. This chapter argues that it is important for students to be actively involved in lessons on reproductive health and encouraged to ask questions to help them claim ownership of the knowledge acquired during such lessons to ensure life-long learning.
Female Adolescent Health and Reproductive Needs: Challenges and Counselling Implications (Published)
The reproductive and sexual health needs of female adolescents differ from those of adults female. There is a growing concern about the female adolescent health and reproductive needs and challenges such as unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) abortion, and post abortion care services and use of contraceptive. Though most of them usually do reluctantly seek reproductive services, it is necessary for them to gain insights earlier on current practices and information on health services concerning their health to enable them get the required interventions to tackle their reproductive health needs and challenges. This paper aims at identifying some of the secondary school female adolescents’ health needs and challenges and suggest counselling interventions to handle them. The sample consisted of 160 female adolescents randomly selected from secondary schools in educational district v of Lagos state. A researcher constructed questionnaire was used to collect data to test two hypotheses formulated for the study. The data was analyzed using Pearson’s product moment correlation statistics. The findings show that there is relationship between the use of contraceptives and prevention of unwanted pregnancies among female adolescents and also that there is no significant difference between access to reproductive health information and sexually transmitted infections among them. Based on the findings, the study listed some counselling implications which is that counsellors should provide sexuality information for female adolescents in schools to enable them handle and monitor their reproductive health needs and challenges.
Socio-Cultural Factors Affecting the Autonomy of Reproductive Decisions of Married Women in Nsukka L.G.A. Of Enugu State, Nigeria (Published)
This article focuses on the socio-cultural factors affecting the autonomy of married women in reproductive decisions in Nsukka L.G.A. of Enugu State, Nigeria. Three vital areas of reproductive decision making were discussed namely: decision on the number of children to have in the family, decision on the place to seek care during pregnancy/childbirth, and decision on the use of contraceptives for family planning purposes. The data presented in this article were derived from a study carried out in Obukpa, in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State Nigeria in 2011. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data gathering were utilized. The instruments for data collection were the questionnaire, in-depth interview and focus group discussions. The findings of the study showed that married women in Obukpa, Nsukka L.G.A. do not have autonomy of reproductive decisions. Socio-cultural factors like residence, age, educational qualification, religion, occupation, did not positively affect the autonomy of reproductive decisions of married women. Their autonomy was basically affected by ‘culture’, which portrays male dominance. This is typical of a patriarchal society; which includes Obukpa in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria.
Communication and Advocacy Strategies on Adolecents’ Reproductive Heath: Case Study of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria (Published)
This study examined the relationship between communication and advocacy strategies on adolescents’ reproductive health in Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.
The study was a descriptive survey research. The sample for the study was 200 respondents which were randomly selected among regular undergraduate students from all faculties using cluster random sampling technique. The instrument used was questionnaire which was constructed by the researcher and corrected and approved by research expert. The instrument was tagged “Communication and Advocacy Strategies on Adolescents Reproductive Health” (CASARH). The data collected was analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. All the hypotheses generated were tested at 0.05 level of significant. It revealed that communication and advocacy strategies affect adolescent’s reproductive health, that is, there is perfect relationship between the two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. This study further recommended that proper and adequate enlightenment programmes and campaigns should be made available by the government, non-governmental organizations and private individuals to empower the adolescents with required skills, knowledge and capabilities to function efficiently and effectively in all sectors of the society, and this is by organizing seminars, workshops, conferences and other public talks.
Psychological Barriers to Satisfaction of Reproductive Health Needs of the Age-Cohort 10-24 Years in Imo State, Nigeria (Published)
This study sought to investigate psychological barriers to satisfaction of reproductive health needs of the age-cohort 10-24 years in Imo State, Nigeria. To facilitate the realization of this objective, three research questions and two hypotheses were postulated for the study. The population for the study was 93,250 which comprised students in all the secondary and tertiary institutions in Imo State. Using the multi-stage sampling procedure, a sample size of 5010 students was drawn. The sample size represented 5 per cent of the population. The study adopted cross-sectional survey research design. The instrument used for data collection was a self-constructed questionnaire, known as PSYBARNAC which contained 13 items in two sections A and B. Section ‘A’ contained the personal data (age and gender) of respondents while section ‘B’ contained the psychological barriers to satisfaction of reproductive health needs. The instrument was validated by a jury of three drawn from the Department of Physical and Health Education, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri. The reliability co-efficient of 0.88 was derived using Pearson Product Moment Reliability co-efficient. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics of percentage and mean in answering the research questions, while inferential statistic of Z-test and ANOVA were used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The result showed that young persons are faced with psychological barriers to reproductive health needs. The findings further revealed that the psychological barriers experienced by age cohort 10-24 years vary by age and gender. Based on the findings of the study, the investigators recommended that, the government through the Ministry of Education and Health should package a sex education programme for young persons of varying age and other status (gender, sexual activity). This is to meet their unique reproductive health needs; the government, NGOs and communities should also develop appropriate strategies to up-date the home (parents and older siblings) with the reproductive health needs of youths and barriers to such needs. This will equip them to join effectively in providing and supporting the young persons in satisfying their reproductive health needs; health stakeholders should organize reproductive health programmes which should be comprehensive, well located and attractive to youths in terms of cost and relationship. This will motivate youths to participate in such programmes; reproductive health service providers should be trained by the government to help them evaluate their own values and understanding of needs of those they are serving, so as to ensure that all young people are treated with dignity and receive comprehensive reproductive health services that address their reproductive health needs; service providers and parents should improve on their interpersonal relationship with young person; this will help to reduce the psychological barriers that hinder young persons from accessing reproductive health services, as well as, make the services more attractive to young persons.
Communication and Advocacy Strategies on Adolescents’ Reproductive Heath: Case Study of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria (Published)
This study examined the relationship between communication and advocacy strategies on adolescents’ reproductive health in Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive survey research. The sample for the study was 200 respondents which were randomly selected among regular undergraduate students from all faculties using cluster random sampling technique. The instrument used was questionnaire which was constructed by the researcher and corrected and approved by research expert. The instrument was tagged “Communication and Advocacy Strategies on Adolescents Reproductive Health” (CASARH). The data collected was analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. All the hypotheses generated were tested at 0.05 level of significant. It revealed that communication and advocacy strategies affect adolescent’s reproductive health, that is, there is perfect relationship between the two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. This study further recommended that proper and adequate enlightenment programmes and campaigns should be made available by the government, non-governmental organizations and private individuals to empower the adolescents with required skills, knowledge and capabilities to function efficiently and effectively in all sectors of the society, and this is by organizing seminars, workshops, conferences and other public talks.