Tag Archives: Renewable Energy

Solar Pv Power Generation: Key Insights And Imperatives (Published)

This paper gives an insight into a key arm of Renewable Energy (RE) – Solar PV (Photo-Voltaic). It presents key definitions, processes and technologies behind the Solar PV power generation process. The literature is clarified in such a way as to ensure a primary understanding of the concept and its processes for anyone willing to key into Solar PV as a clean alternative to electricity power generation. With further deepening of knowledge around this area, acceptability and patronage of Solar PV can be enhanced especially within the country Nigeria, leading to a spiral effect with beneficial implications for competitive/cheaper energy prices, reduced air pollution, improved urban-rural energy accessibility, and reduced global warming and climate change environmental effects. This paper posits that the acquisition of basic knowledge and understanding of the concept is critical, and would influence buy-in and patronage. Ultimately, the prospect of a paradigm shift away from fossil power generation to renewable sources is enhanced.

Keywords: Grid, Renewable Energy, Solar Battery, Solar Inverter, Solar Systems., solar PV

Evaluation of Biogas Production from the Digestion and Co-Digestion of Animal Waste, Food Waste and Fruit Waste (Published)

The increased use of fossil fuels for energy consumption has causes environmental problems both locally and globally. The study investigates the anaerobic digestion in the production of biogas a renewable energy from the digestion and co-digestion of three different types of biodegradable wastes (cow dung, fruit waste and food waste) as an alternative for fossil fuels for energy consumption. This was carried out using a 25 Litres capacity plastic keg prototype biogas plant, constructed to investigate the anaerobic digestion in generating biogas. The experiment was batch operated and daily gas yield from the plant was monitored for 30 days. The slurry temperature and pH were also monitored and presented. The digester was charged with these wastes in the ratio of 1:1, of waste to water respectively. The mesophilic temperatures range attained within the testing period were 25 – 28.4 and a slurry temperature range of 24.4 -28.4. The result obtained from the biogas production showed that the co-digestion of cow dung and food waste produced the highest biogas of 164.8%, followed by the co-digestion of the three waste (cow dung, fruit waste and food waste) which has a percentage of 91.0%, co-digestion of cow dung and fruit waste (83.9%), cow dung of 79.8%, food waste of 77.4% and fruit waste of 76.4% within this retention period. During the digestion period, the volume of biogas production and the changes in pH indicate that the pH decreases as the retention period increases. These results showed that co-digestion wastes produce more biogas than when the wastes are ordinarily used for biogas production. The study recommends that biogas is not just a renewable energy source but also an appropriate way of managing waste, having potential to replace fossil fuel.

Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, Biodegradable Wastes, Biogas, Fossil Fuel, Renewable Energy

Design of a Renewable Energy Output Prediction System for 1000mw Solar-Wind Hybrid Power Plant (Published)

Problems associated with non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels make it necessary to move to cleaner renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. But the wind and sun are both intermittent sources of energy therefore accurate forecasts of wind and solar power are necessary to ensure the safety, stability and economy of utilizing these resources in large scale power generation. In this study, five meteorological parameters namely Temperature, Rainfall, Dew Point, Relative Humidity and Cloud Cover were collected for the year 2012 and used to predict wind and solar power output in Jos, Nigeria. The study used prediction algorithms such as Regression techniques and Artificial Neural Networks to predict the output of a 1000mW Solar-Wind Hybrid Power Plant over a period of one year. Individual prediction techniques were compared and Isotonic Regression was found to have the highest accuracy with errors of 40.5% in predicting solar power generation and 35.4% in predicting wind power generation. The relatively high levels of error are attributed to several limitations of the research work.

Keywords: Cloud Cover, Dew Point, Output Prediction, Power, Rainfall, Relative Humidity, Renewable Energy, Solar, Temperature, Weather, Wind

Evaluation of Biogas Production from the Digestion and Co-Digestion of Animal Waste, Food Waste and Fruit Waste (Published)

The increased use of fossil fuels for energy consumption has causes environmental problems both locally and globally. The study investigates the anaerobic digestion in the production of biogas a renewable energy from the digestion and co-digestion of three different types of biodegradable wastes (cow dung, fruit waste and food waste) as an alternative for fossil fuels for energy consumption. This was carried out using a 25 Litres capacity plastic keg prototype biogas plant, constructed to investigate the anaerobic digestion in generating biogas. The experiment was batch operated and daily gas yield from the plant was monitored for 30 days. The slurry temperature and pH were also monitored and presented. The digester was charged with these wastes in the ratio of 1:1, of waste to water respectively. The mesophilic temperatures range attained within the testing period were 25 – 28.4 and a slurry temperature range of 24.4 -28.4 . The result obtained from the biogas production showed that the co-digestion of cow dung and food waste produced the highest biogas of 164.8%, followed by the co-digestion of the three waste (cow dung, fruit waste and food waste) which has a percentage of 91.0%, co-digestion of cow dung and fruit waste (83.9%), cow dung of 79.8%, food waste of 77.4% and fruit waste of 76.4% within this retention period. During the digestion period, the volume of biogas production and the changes in pH indicate that the pH decreases as the retention period increases. These results showed that co-digestion wastes produce more biogas than when the wastes are ordinarily used for biogas production. The study recommends that biogas is not just a renewable energy source but also an appropriate way of managing waste, having potential to replace fossil fuel.

Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, Biodegradable Wastes, Biogas, Fossil Fuel, Renewable Energy

SURVEY OF THE REFLECTIVITY OF THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE OVER SOME SELECTED CITIES IN NIGERIA (Published)

Solar radiation is rapidly gaining ground as a supplement to the non renewable sources of energy, which have a finite supply. But the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth’s surface depends on the climatic and atmospheric conditions of the locations. This work evaluates the temporal and spatial variability of the reflectivity of the Earth’s atmosphere over Ibadan, Enugu, Sokoto and Kano, in order to access the effect of the atmospheric conditions on solar radiation in the areas. The data used for this study were obtained from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan (1980-2010). The model for shortwave solar energy balance at the edge of the Earth’s atmosphere was adopted in this work. The results show that seasonally, the reflectivity obtained in this work ranged from 0.52 – 0.64, 0.46-0.55, 0.38-0.53, and 0.41-0.57 for Oyo, Enugu, Sokoto and Kano respectively. Annually, the reflectivity obtained ranged from 0.48-0.65, 0.36-0.64, 0.22-0.50 and 0.36-0.60 for Ibadan, Enugu, Sokoto and Kano respectively. This result may be due to the influence of the dry, dusty tropical-continental air mass and the warm, tropical-maritime air mass which control the atmospheric conditions of Nigeria. The atmospheric conditions of the selected cities for the period under review vary from being cloudy, heavily laden with harmattan dust, cloudless (clear) to dustless (clean), hence there is high prospect of solar technology in the areas. This information is useful to solar energy technology, environmental engineers and for climatic modeling. The results obtained were compared with the results of other places having almost latitudinal location and co-ordinates similar to the selected cities.

Keywords: : Reflectivity, Earth’s atmosphere, Nigeria, Renewable Energy, Solar Radiation

IMPROVEMENT POWER FAILURE AND PROTECT SUSTAINABILITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN BANGLADESH BY THE RENEWABLE ENERGY: REVIEW (Published)

Developing countries are without compromising the environment, environmentally friendly, economic development of Bangladesh is a burning issue and requires a large supply of power. The use of fossil fuels is limited, solar, wind; biomass renewable energy sources such as hydro power limit option might be compensated for the other countries of similar power crisis in Bangladesh are not separated. From the power supply grid connected through three quarters (76%) of the people of Bangladesh. No doubt it is natural gas that has been limited to using a variety of purposes. Mean energy demand alarm output gap is expected to increase exponentially. Despite expectations that renewable energy sources are now in this country, you only have a 0.3% share of renewable energy in the total energy supply. In this article, not only, however, for future use in Bangladesh and the state of renewable energy that can be obtained in Bangladesh to review the renewable energy technologies. It will also try to show that the direction of future research, the use of renewable energy to meet future needs.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Electricity generation, Fossil Fuel, Renewable Energy, Sustainability

TO IMPROVE POWER FAILURE AND PROTECT SUSTAINABILITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN BANGLADESH BY THE RENEWABLE ENERGY (Published)

Developing countries are without compromising the environment, environmentally friendly, economic development of Bangladesh is a burning issue and requires a large supply of power. The use of fossil fuels is limited, solar, wind; biomass renewable energy sources such as hydro power limit option might be compensated for the other countries of similar power crisis in Bangladesh are not separated. From the power supply grid connected through three quarters (76%) of the people of Bangladesh. No doubt it is natural gas that has been limited to using a variety of purposes. Mean energy demand alarm output gap is expected to increase exponentially. Despite expectations that renewable energy sources are now in this country, you only have a 0.3% share of renewable energy in the total energy supply. In this article, not only, however, for future use in Bangladesh and the state of renewable energy that can be obtained in Bangladesh to review the renewable energy technologies. It will also try to show that the direction of future research, the use of renewable energy to meet future needs.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Electricity generation, Fossil Fuel, Renewable Energy, Sustainability

ENERGY EXTENSION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND GENDER EQUALITY IN ETHIOPIA (Published)

The aim of this study is to analyze and realize the application of energy extension to hold sustainable green economy of the country. Energy extensions improve access of energy to the most of the rural areas, reduce emissions of local and global pollutants, and create local socioeconomic development opportunities. Those concerns have rekindled interest in energy efficiency, energy conservation, and the development and commercialization of renewable energy technologies. The study recommends that more energy extension should be carried out to enhance energy management, performance improvement and also, environmental protection to ensure human healthy and gender equality. And Policies should focus on promoting energy extension, especially in the residential and commercial sectors to drive green economic growth.

Keywords: Energy extension, Energy policy, Gender Equality, Gender equality Energy extension, Renewable Energy, Sustainable

POTENTIALS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA (Published)

Ebonyi State is one of the south east states in Nigeria and is highly endowed with enormous resources both renewable and non-renewable. It is currently known as the “Salt of the Nation” due to large salt deposits in the state. However the maximum solar irradiance in Ebonyi State is in the range 895.70 W/m2 to 1043.83 W/m2. The generation rate of solid waste in the state capital is 9.580 x 10-3m3. These values indicate that the level of insolation and volume of biomass resources available in Ebonyi State can generate sufficient electricity for both her domestic and industrial use if properly harnessed in a sustainable manner. Despite these resources, Ebonyi State like other states in Nigeria still depends solely on fossil fuel for her electricity generation. The overdependence on fossil fuels has generated serious negative consequences on the environment, climate and on the health sector. Moreso, Ebonyi State has continued to suffer from epileptic power supply and this has almost crippled her economic, social and industrial activities. This study presents the current energy situation and the status of renewable energy technology and utilisation in Ebonyi State. It also highlights the potential benefits of renewable energy utilisation as a viable means of revitalising, restructuring and diversifying her energy source for sustainable growth and development in the State. The prospects and challenges of renewable energy technology are also discussed, and finally propose the way forward.

Keywords: Biomass Energy, Ebonyi State, Insolation, Renewable Energy

UTILIZATION OF SOLAR AND BIOMASS ENERGY- A PANACEA TO ENERGY SUSTAINABILITY IN A DEVELOPING ECONOMY (Published)

This study presents the potentials of solar energy utilisation and other possible pathways that could enhance energy sustainability in a developing economy. Nigeria is a developing country, blessed with abundant natural resources (renewable and non- renewable). However the current energy mix in Nigeria is such that little attention is given to the renewable sources in terms of exploitation and use. Despite the on-going privatisation of the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN), the current energy demand in Nigeria still far outweighs the supply which is also quite epileptic. The adoption of renewable energy options especially solar-thermal, solar photovoltaics, and biomass technology on a large scale will surely lead to reduced internal consumption of fossil fuel related products, and to boost increased energy availability and sustainability. This study critically examines the factors hindering solar and biomass energy utilisation in a developing economy. It then identifies the impact of unsustainable energy use in the economy and reviews related literature. It also highlights the need for Government to give urgent attention to tapping of the vast renewable resources in the country for increased energy generation and sustainability.

Keywords: Developing Economy, Energy Sustainability, Renewable Energy, Solar Energy, Utilisation.