Tag Archives: Religion.

A Comparative Study of English and Igbo Proverbs with Reference to Their World views: Its Implications for/to the Literary Translator (Published)

All cultures have proverbs that are unique to them and it has been discovered that the same pragmatic information is derived from these proverbs drawn from different cultural conditions, terms and languages. Consequently, proverbs are commonly found in literary texts most especially in African literature. The thrust of this research is to study through the analysis of some popular English and Igbo proverbs with the view to identifying the motivational factors inherent in their choice of words, their similarities and differences, the influence of their word views, religion, social life and belief. We discovered that the same message is transferred from one language to another in spite of their cultural differences. In conclusion, what is said in one language can be said in another with special reference to the linguistic and cultural differences of the languages. This work will in no small measure alleviates the work of the literary translator.

Citation: Ahiazunwa Scholastica Cookey and Charity Osinachi Ijioma (2022) A Comparative Study of English and Igbo Proverbs with Reference to Their World views: Its Implications for/to the Literary Translator, International Journal of African Society, Cultures and Traditions, Vol.8, No.1, pp.1-12,

 

 

 

Keywords: Culture, Proverbs, Religion., literary translator, world view

Cambridge Apostles: Religion (Published)

In 1820 and at Cambridge University in England, a secret group or society called The Cambridge Apostles appeared and attracted many British learned or intellectuals of the 19th century. This paper gives a brief account of the group, the foundation, and the procedures of their meetings, to focus more on their religious identity. Cambridge Apostles with its liberal endeavor, based first on real Christian grounds with the founder who acknowledged himself as the Bishop of Gibraltar, however, the members or the apostles turned later to acquire, what was commonly known, the religious doubt and went to question the old established Christian institutions.

Keywords: 19th century literature, Apostles, Cambridge Apostles, Cambridge University, Religion., literary clubs, literary group, religious doubts, the elite

The influence of religion and marriage on women’s leadership in Ashanti region of Ghana (Published)

Citation: Simon Kyei (2022) The influence of religion and marriage on women’s leadership in Ashanti region of Ghana, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.10, No.1, pp.21-38

Abstract: This paper focuses on how religion and marriage cultures in Ghana influence women to be ruled by men. As a descriptive research, it used qualitative research approach and adopted descriptive statistics as it used basic tables and graphs to explain the findings. The major finding was that marriage and religion have potential to prevent women from become leaders as women are likely to obey the marriage and religious principles that group women and men into subordinates and leaders respectively. The conclusion made was that as religion and marriage cultures coerce women to accept that men are to lead them in all spheres of life, the radical feminists who see men as enemies and call for emancipation as means to address the situation are likely to fail in their approach. On the other hand, social and liberal feminists who call for education as means to address the man and women status disparities problem are likely to be comfortable in marriage and religion and succeed in becoming leaders in the society as well

 

Keywords: Feminism, Leadership, Marriage, Religion., gender othering

Exploring the Constructs of Derrida’s Religiosity in the Teachings of the Gita: A Comparative Study (Published)

The questions on religion and God have always been perplexing and they have remained as issues in academia. This has become more burning issue since Derrida’s introduction of deconstruction to academia in 1960s as both Derrida’s personality and deconstruction remained controversial regarding these issues. So in this paper I have reviewed the studies on Derrida and deconstruction in relation to religion and God with the purpose to find out the constructs to identify Derrida’s religiosity and its similarities with the teachings of the Gita. Then I have employed these constructs to explore the teachings of the Gita as a comparative study and identified that the constructs of Derrida’s religiosity go in the line with the teachings of the Gita. Thus both of them suggest the deconstructive understanding of religion and God; they identify religion as the pursuit of the truth and justice and God as the undeconstructible, a sacred reality; they are comprehensive and inclusive of all as they are guided by a quasi-transcendental logic and deconstructive belief. Thus, this study has made a significant foundation for the study of postmodern spirituality and its enhancement for promoting interspirituality and sustainable peace in the world.

Keywords: Derrida, Derrida's Religiosity, God, Postmodern Spirituality, Religion., Teachings of the Gita, deconstruction, interspirituality

The Impact of Religion, Culture and World View of the People of Cross River State on the Slow Growth of Seventh-Day (SDA) Church Mission in the State (Published)

The research looks at the impact of religion, culture and worldview of the people of Cross River State on the spread of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Cross River State. To realize this, three (3) point purpose of the study was considered, data were collected from the field-work and the study employed statistical, sociological, historical and theological methods in analyzing its data. From the investigation conducted on this study, it is apparent that the following are the major factors impacted on the slow growth of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Cross River State, namely: Religio-Cultural Factors and Church Growth; Socio-Economic Factor and Church Growth, and Religious Factors and Church Growth. This recommended church organization can be understood through the adoption of the under-listed missiological approaches: Incarnation, Inculturation, and Contextualization of the gospel, in addition to Inclusive Community Paradigm in reaching out to the people of Cross River State.

Keywords: Culture, Religion., church growth., worldview

An investigative study into the causes and effects of ethno-religious conflicts on women and children in Wukari and Ibi Local Government Areas of Taraba State, Nigeria, 1991 – 2020. (Published)

Conflict is a major problem in any given society and it is often inevitable. Since the re-introduction of democracy in Nigeria in 1999, Nigeria has become a permanent flashpoint of violent conflicts. These conflicts are political, ethnic, or religious in nature, and the consequences are devastating. Taraba State has not been an exception since its creation in 1991, witnessing incessant communal clashes across ethnic and religious lines. These ethno-religious conflicts have attendant debilitating consequences on life and property. The most disturbing aspect is their effects on women and children who are naturally the weaker proportion of any human population. The main thrust of this paper is therefore to isolate the effects of such conflicts on women and children for intense assessment. Thus, in order to do this, the article explores the ethno-religious conflicts in Southern Taraba State of Nigeria, particularly in Wukari and Ibi Local Government Areas. Adopting a multi-disciplinary approach, the article reveals that ethno-religious conflicts in the area of study have severe effects on women and children, causing not only deaths of husbands, children, siblings and loved ones, but destruction of their homes, amenities, social contracts, trusts and so on. The conflicts have also caused severe sufferings on the high number of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), who are mostly women and children. However, the article suggests the need for restoration and sustenance of peace, not only in Wukari and Ibi LGAs, but Southern  Taraba, the State and Nigeria at large, through some immediate and long term solutions.

Keywords: Conflict, Death, Ethnic, Harmony, Hatred, Idps, Peace, Religion., Sustainable, Women, children, injury, refugees

Analysis of Issues of Religion and the Fight against Terrorism (Published)

Religion, just like culture, is a way of life, which is built upon faith in a given factor, attribute or being. It is the faith that builds up how the individual who is entangled to the religion would conduct himself in any given circumstance. The concept of religion is a way or mode of faith or belief which a person has taken for a given period. It requires a complete emotional, physical, spiritual and psychological being of any follower. Religion is faith in anything in expectation of a reward or aid; either in the present life and world or in another. The teachings of various religious groups operate in a way and manner wherein the people of a given religion see themselves only as worthy of the expected reward and others as not being worthy of any reward and thus, infidels. This, in line with other factors; to some extent, create a form of radicalism and indoctrination amongst the followers. Religion has a way of compelling its followers to abide by any directive and prescription given in line with the doctrines and beliefs of the religion. Terrorism, on the other hand, has to do with any form of violence or conduct which is at the expense of the peaceful co-existence of the people of a given area at any given time; which tend to be seen as internal aggression or external insurrection against the state. Arguments have it that the issues relating to religion do in one way or the other relates to terrorism; while others say that the role of religion is not to provoke but to quell terrorism. In whatever dimension; this paper is meant to make a discourse on the issues of religion and the fight against terrorism. The paper will have a global view of the major concepts, with close instances of the issues of religion and terrorism as it enclosed on the Sub-Saharan countries; most especially Nigeria.

Keywords: Religion., Terrorism, external insurrection, indoctrination, internal aggression, radicalism

NIKHIL-ANKITA Theorem: Number cannot be certain it is always uncertain. (Published)

By viewing the contents you agree to the Terms and Conditions. All punishments subject to jurisdiction at Ranchi-834001. All protocols are valid. Statement – A number should always be represented as: A+-Ni , where A is magnitude of real part, N is magnitude of imaginary part, i is the imaginary iota symbol. The angle Tan^-1(N/A) is calculated with sign to obtain phase. There is always a tendency towards the number 0 +- 0i i.e. neither leading nor lagging phase. It is not possible to convert all Imaginary part of a number into real number. A conversion always occurs between A to N vice versa i.e. N to A.

Keywords: Death, Education System, Religion., birth, complex signal processing, electrical electronics computer communication, porn

Medicine and Religion in the Nigerian Society: Conflicts and Controversies (Published)

This topic is borne out of the need to check an ugly trend which is now a cankerworm eating deeply into our health indices and progressively leading to the increasing mortality of our citizens even at a rate that may be far more than the activities of the terrorists. Shortly I shall be looking at the crack (conflicts and controversies) that have been created between Religion and Medical Science which unfortunately is widening by the day for no just cause.

Keywords: Controversies, Medicine, Nigeria, Religion., Society, conflicts.

Abu Ishaque’s Surya-Dighal Bari: Religious Hegemony in the Context of the Famine of 1943 in Colonized Bengal (Published)

Surya-Dighal Bari (The Ill-Omened House), published in 1955, translated into English by Bangla Academy awardee Abdus Selim, is Abu Ishaque’s first and classic novel. Ishaque is considered one the pioneers of modern Bangladeshi novelists. The background or plot of the novel is twofold. First, the time period, this is known as the famine of ‘50. In Bangla year 1350 (1943 AD), a devastating famine stroke this land just four years before the Partition of Bengal and almost five million people died of starvation. This famine was caused by some controversial policies and indifference of the British government. A heartbreaking scenario of this famine reported in “Bengal Provincial Hindu Mahasabha Relief Committee Report of Relief Works” says, ‘The streets of the “Second City of the British Empire” thronged with living skeletons, the emaciated deadbodies frequently found on the pavements of the metropolis, men and dogs fighting for a share of the garbage collected in the dustbins of Calcutta, unattended babies in the villages being dragged away by the jackals are the sights that are never to be forgotten’ (6).  Secondly, the pre and post-Partition Bengal and its impact on ordinary people. The Partition was done on the basis of Hindu-Muslim religious riot the devastating impact of which is still perforating Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. After the partition, people became more dominated by religious fundamentalism. So called Imams and other leaders started to take the opportunity of the ignorance of ordinary people to dominate them. Even in the novel, it is depicted how the ill-omened house is haunted by djinns. And to be safe from them, people have to take Tabij (amulets) or other superstitious precautions. Politicians, who used religious sentiment as their political weapon, are not the characters of this novel, yet they dominate the plot. Readers can smell gunpowder though they don’t see a single gun. The famine emerged during World War II, the country became independent in the name of religion, and politicians were benefitted in various ways. This paper tends to show how insignificant this independence is for the ordinary people. Just within five or six years of independence, Ishaque realized that nothing positive was going to happen in independent Pakistan, a religion-based state. Independence in the name of religion is of no use to the ordinary people; rather, religion becomes another weapon of domination for the ‘independent religious-political leaders’. Politicians didn’t create war for economic- social- psychological freedom of these marginalized people. They wanted to fix up their own geographical border where they would practice power freely. National and international politicians created war and took their own shares. But the inextricable strike of the rodent paw of war descends on those who don’t know the who- what- why- how of the war. They don’t even know who are fighting against whom. The people dying of starvation are innocent and their only fund is some simple- impeccable dreams. One of these dreams is to have enough food for survival. This simple dream becomes an unreality when riot begins, war haunts and famine strikes. This paper also tries to show the true condition of a newly independent East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), where the infamous famine of 1943 has already stricken. It also tries to depict the condition of so called low life marginalized people. Has the controversial Partition of Bengal really benefited either Hindus or Muslims? Has it really freed people of religious, political or economic subservience? These questions are still valid because the devastating War of Liberation of 1971 again left an almost-permanent scar in the soul of Bangladesh. The necessity of the Liberation War proves that a partition on the basis of religion can never bring good luck to a country.

Keywords: Colonialism, Famine, Hegemony, Partition, Religion.

Boko Haram: The Birth, Geography and Hypotheses Responsible For the Sustenance of the Conflict in Nigeria (Published)

There are many states on the northern border of Nigeria with Niger, Chad and Cameroon. And in these states, there are many ethnic groups. However, it is only the Kanuri enclave of Borno and Yobe states that produced the radical Islamic boko haram sect. It is the informed position of this paper that one of the reasons why the Kanuri gestated boko haram was largely due to the international territorial advantage they have. The reason is that the Kanuri is the only ethnic group in northern Nigeria that undistorted distribution into neighbouring countries of Chad, Cameroon and Niger, with the special feature of almost uninterrupted spread. Therefore, the paper argues that this geographical advantage certainly has a fundamental role in the on-going conflict of the boko haram. It is also the submission of this paper that the version of Islam prevalent in the Kanuri enclave is predisposed to radicalism that boko haram prides with. It is common knowledge that since the conflict ensued, the Nigerian government has taken measures aimed at curtailing moments of attacks and frustrating the movement’s ambition. This desire is yet a success. Therefore, the paper appraises the methodologies so far employed, identifying why they have not worked, and probably why they will never work for this conflict that has lasted for a decade now.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Ethnic Identity, Kanuri, Politics, Religion., conspiracy

The Relationship between Religion and Morality: On Whether the Multiplicity of Religious Denominations Have Impacted Positively On Socio-Ethical Behavior (Published)

Morality until recently has been seen as a brainchild of religion and thus an essential part of religion from which it is inseparable. This assumption has even led some scholars to hold that there can be no morality without religion since morality is intrinsically a part of religion. It is therefore assumed that a religious person is essentially a moral person and that a moral life may not be possible without religion. If this assumption is upheld it will mean that with the multiplicity of major religious denominations the world will be a better place. Whether this is so is an issue that elicits fierce divergent views among scholars and people of various orientations. This works critically examines the relationship between religion and morality to determine whether the above claims and expectations are justified. Employing the philosophical tools of critical analysis, exposition and evaluation of facts experientially acquired as well as information from the works of researchers on the issues of religion and morality, the work examines whether there is a definitional relationship or connection between religion and morality and whether they are related through their concerns, preoccupations or constituent elements. This connection was not seen. The work further examined the opinions of scholars with regard to their relationship as well as what the consequences will be if ethics depends on religion. In trying to find out the root of the assumption the work critically examined the contentious issue of the impact of the multiplicity of religious denominations on socio-ethical behavior. In conclusion the work decried the lack of synergy between morality and religion, holding that though there may be no definitional connection between them and their concerns, preoccupations and constituent elements may differ, morality and religion are complimentary in forging a better society. If they synergize their efforts the world will be a better place.

Keywords: Morality, Religion., Religious Denominations, Socio-Ethical Behavior

Religious Responses to the 21 August 1986 Lake Nyos Gas Disaster, Cameroon (Published)

Religion sits alongside other factors to determine the capacity to understand, respond and recover from Disaster. Following the occurrence of the Lake Nyos disaster and as it became clear that the horrifying natural episode marked a turning point in the lives of the hardest-hit communities, religious leaders and their faithful brought a faith perspective to the explanation and response to the event. This article focuses on these religious reactions to the Nyos disaster, and draws on published research, oral sources and previously unexplored archival sources. After presenting the pre-disaster religious landscape of the area, it first investigates religious explanations to the origins and impact of the event. Second, it explores ritual practices that were observed in response to the disaster. Finally, it highlights how the disaster was used as a justification for Christian social action and proselytization among survivors. In the conclusion, I make the case that the religious faiths in the Lake Nyos disaster area explained and responded to the event in ways that were couched in religious terms.

Keywords: Christianity, Disaster, Indigenous Religion, Islam, Lake Nyos, Proselytisation., Religion., Ritual, Social action, Theodicy

Allah’s Political Sovereignty, As ‘Imagined’ By Fundamentalist Muslims, and Its Role in Disapproving Secularism in the Arab World (Published)

This article’s central theme is to expose the ‘views’ of fundamentalist Muslims and radical Ulema about secularism; which is the separation between religion and state affairs. Fundamentalists and Ulema have been using many internet websites and forums to oppose Arab governments and liberals’ endeavors for secularization. Fundamentalists introduced what they call “Islamic alternative” which insist on fusing religion and state affairs. Through their intellectual discourse, the fundamentalists distorted secularism in the collective consciousness of Arab societies, and have created a psychological complex rooted in the subconscious and internal thinking that secularism is jahiliyyah (ignorance), kufir (unbelief/infidelity), Rida (apostasy) and iilhad (atheism). This fact is of great importance in the present history when the influence of Islamic extremism; that producing terrorism, is increasing throughout the world. This study focuses on the internet, websites, and forums run by fundamentalist groups and individuals, since these sites became more influential than books, because of its easy availability and lower costs.

Keywords: Arab, Fundamentalism, Islam, Religion., Secularism, Ulema

Incessant Collapse of Buildings in Nigeria: The Implications for Religious/ Worship Centres (Published)

Building collapse is more common and devastating in developing world. In Nigeria, the trend is on the increase and religious houses/buildings are not left out. Buildings can be described as structural entities capable of securing self by transmitting load (dead load and live load) to the ground. A church building or religious buildings however are sacred places where believers interface with God.  Paradoxically, church/religious buildings and pilgrimage sites are also now becoming places where people lose their lives as a result of accident and structural collapse. A building collapse occurs when part or whole body of a structure fails and suddenly gives way, the structure as a result of this failure, could not meet the purpose for which it was meant for. Assembly buildings (Religious buildings) account for 12.7% of building collapse in Nigeria. Most church building collapse are not often reported or recorded, except where the casualties is much and cannot be hidden from the government agencies. The Synagogue Church Building and Reigners Bible Church building collapse are recent incidents in Nigeria. The aim of this paper is to review the causes of building collapse and suggest ways of prevention as it concerns religious buildings.

Keywords: Building, Collapse, Religion., Structure, foundation

Demographic Factors Influencing Adult Participation In Christian Education Programs Among Episcopal Churches In Southern California (Published)

The capability of a free, mature faith response to the Gospel is more in Adult Christians than in the young Christians. It is thus imperative that the opportunities of Christian education are by extension made available to adults. This paper is an investigation into the reasons why adults participate in congregationally sponsored Christian education learning events in the church.  Adult participation in Christian education is examined in relation to selected demographic variables and the religious motivation of adults. Understanding the motivational orientations of adults serves as a beginning point for church leaders and directors of Christian education to develop and organize educational programs that meet the needs of adult learners. Motivation to participate was measured using an adaptation of the Education Participation Scale (EPS) (Boshier, 1991). The factors include; Spiritual Growth, Cognitive Interest, Church and Community Service, Education Preparation, Social Contact, Family Togetherness and Social Stimulation. A sample size of 454 Episcopalian adults that constituted 63% females and 37% males, averaging 50 years participated in the study undertaken in Southern California. Statistical procedures used to analyze data in this study included Pearson Product-Moment Correlation and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). All hypotheses were tested at an alpha level of .05. In relation to demographic variables, intrinsically motivated respondents who had a higher level of education attended more programs. Singles tended to be extrinsically motivated in their participation of educational activities. Nonetheless, no correlations were found between age and the Religious Orientation

Keywords: Adult Education, Christian Education, Episcopal churches, Religion., South California

The Traditional Mbaise Society: Perspectives on Igbo Scio-Cultural History, 1500-1900 (Published)

This article examines aspects of the socio-cultural institutions and practices in the context of traditional Mbaise society and culture. The process of evolution and growth of Mbaise society was predicated on a number of institutions and practices which had socio-cultural, political, economic and religious implications. Appreciating the fact that social development is a vast area in socio-cultural history, the paper concentrated on the family structure, marriage institutions, religious beliefs and practices. Traditional Mbaise society was endowed with these great institutions and others which Christianity sought to wipe out, though without success. The impact of Christianity and other western influences notwithstanding, the paper argues that these institutions generated ideas, values, and norms which crystallized into the Mbaise identity and cosmology. Against the backdrop of the popular opinion held by the western writers to the effect that pre-colonial African societies were not part of world history and civilization (and hence incapable of initiating change), we argue further that this negative and bias narrative about pre-colonial African societies is now very anachronistic and no longer worthy of intellectual attention by scholars of both African and European persuasions

Keywords: Africa, Christianity, Mbaise, Religion., Socio-cultural, Tradition, history

Why Secularism Failed to Become an Arab Socio-Political Culture? (Published)

The idea of “secularism” is still rejected within the Arab cognitive structure at the level of intellectual, social and political construction. So far, Arab secularists have failed to find popular acceptance for secularism within the Arab cultural- religious structure and socio political sphere. As a result, traditional religious discourse and values still dominate minds!! The purpose of this study is to discuss, analyze and explain why secularism has not become the culture and political ideology of the Arab peoples and governments. The researcher assumes that the reasons are due to: the neglect of the cultural factor by the Arab secularists, the marriage of Arab nationalism and religion, the emergence of political Islam’s movements, and the nature of Islamic religion that rejects reform. Therefore, the researcher recommends that, there is a pressing need for reproducing Arabs prevailing traditional culture by promoting, a civil culture that privatize religion and separates it from politics and state affairs

Keywords: Arabs, Islam, Reform, Religion., Secularism, history

Christian Values and African Culture: An Evaluation (Published)

This paper attempts to examine the influence of Christian values on African culture. As a matter of fact African holds certain things to be of great value, e.g. large family, respect for old people, and believe in the existence of gods, e.t.c. It is these values that gave Africans a distinct cultural personality and enable us to make some contributions to the society. The Christian religion on the other hand means for the African fundamental changes in many of his cultural values. The paper argues that the influence of Christianity has caused certain customs and beliefs to be discarded or modified, at the same time it has caused others to be retained by one level of society while on another level new alternatives are being accepted. We argue further that Christian influence on culture has been selective. It has not been systematically complete or effective, for example in the area of human sacrifice, the slave trade, and the killings of twins have been discarded and old and new ideas have been amalgamated in the sphere of religion. Hence the position with one foot in Christianity and the other in tradition poses a serious dilemma for both Christianity and tradition in Africa.

Keywords: African Culture, Christian God, Deities, Religion., Values

Advertising Decision Making in Cameroon as a Cultural Framework (Published)

The principal objective of this study is to investigate the impact of consumer culture on advertising decisions in Cameroon. The cultural variables used include: language, religion, individualism/collectivism, beliefs, values, customs, and pride. We collected primary data from the towns of Douala and Yaounde through the use of questionnaire, calculated Cronbach`s alpha for each of our measuring instruments to ensure their reliability. This data is analysed through Chi square analysis test, multiple correspondence analysis, the test of T student, poison regression analysis, and Spearman correlation test. We found out that prominent values influencing  advertising  decisions  are;  pride,  face  to  face  contact  in  business  negotiation,  elastic  time concept, long term orientation, and high social tides. Our results showed that consumer culture has a strong impact on advertising in all the regions with the exception of the centre and south regions. It is represented in the products we buy through design. Lastly, local models have a strong positive impact than foreign models, we recommend enterprises advertising in Cameroon to practice ethno advertising, and more so new products should first be advertised in the rest of the regions and gradually to the Centre and south Regions.

Keywords: Acculturation, Advertising, Collectivism, Face to face contact, Language, Long term orientation, Religion., and Elastic time concept, pride