Tag Archives: Reliability

Service Quality and Brand Loyalty of Banks in Bayelsa State of Nigeria (Published)

Citation: Lyndon M. Etale and Emmanuel N. Jerry (2022) Service Quality and Brand Loyalty of Banks in Bayelsa State of Nigeria, British Journal of Marketing Studies Vol. 10, Issue 1, pp.47-63

The study was embarked upon with the aim of determining the nature of the relationship between service quality and brand loyalty of banks in Bayelsa State of Nigeria, and this was done using responsiveness and reliability as dimensions of service quality and brand advocacy as a measure of brand loyalty, bringing about two research questions and study hypotheses which was put to the test by the use of the Pearson correlation coefficient method with the aid of SPSS software. The study adopted the descriptive design and used a questionnaire as a means of gathering data from the customers of selected banks in Bayelsa State amounting to a total of 140, but a total of 130 copies of the questionnaire were retrieved and used for the analysis of data which informed the conclusion and findings of the research. The study revealed a significant relationship between both reliability and responsiveness as dimensions of service quality and brand advocacy as a measure of brand loyalty. The study therefore concluded that there is a significant relationship between the variables and thus made the following recommendations; Banks should give prompt and quick response to its customers‟ compliant by creating a simple and fast compliant handling system; Banks must let its customers feel safe and secured in any transaction; Banks should create a strong feedback system that enables them to relate effectively with customers and understand them better; Banks should fasten their service processes.

Keywords: Reliability, Responsiveness, Service Quality, brand advocacy, brand loyalty

Development of Soft Skill Scale (SSS) For Educational and Industrial Use in Nigeria (Published)

Globally, soft skill is a sought-after skill in the workplace. While this is obtainable and trendy at the global level, Nigeria should not be an exception. Hence, the present study developed Soft Skill Scale (SSS) for educational and industrial use in Nigeria. Triangulation research design based on Classical test theory was used to sample 887 participants from both educational and industrial sectors in Nigeria. One hundred and fifty (150) initial items of SSS were developed. Through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the items were reduced to 110 at pilot study and 69 at post field level. To further affirm the validity of the instrument, a post-pilot study was carried out on 347 respondents. Analysis was done with factor analysis, Pearson Product Moment Correlation as well as Cronbach Alpha method. The findings of the study showed that 69 items loaded into the five factors. This includes communication 14 items, Organization 14 items, Teamwork 21 items, Creativity 7 items and Adaptability 13 items. Subscale-total correlation at both post-field and post-pilot phases yielded 0.73/0.61, 0.83/0.84, 0.89/0.85, 0.76/0.68, and 0.65/0.63 for communication, Organization, Teamwork, Creativity and Adaptability respectively. Cronbach Alpha reliability for full SSS was .96 at post-field and 0.95 at post-pilot phase. The post-pilot validity check all affirmed that SSS was highly valid. Based on this, it was recommended among others that SSS should be recognized and used in school and industrial settings.

Keywords: Reliability, Soft Skills, Test, validity

Usefulness of Voluntary Disclosures in Annual Reports of Listed Companies in Nigerian: An Examination of Users’ Perception (Published)

In spite of the increase in firms disclosing information beyond mandatory information to meet the broad range of users’ information needs, there is limited knowledge from Nigeria as a developing economy on whether voluntary disclosures are useful for the user’s judgments and decisions. That is, research validating that additional disclosures enhance users’ decision making is limited. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether users in Nigeria perceive voluntary disclosures in annual reports to be useful when making investment decisions. To measure users’ perception, survey research design was employed. Relevant data were obtained from survey of seven user groups (Investors, Accounting Practitioners, Regulators, Financial analysts, Academics, Customers and Students) in South East Zone of Nigeria to test the hypothesised usefulness.   Empirical results were obtained through one sample t-test using SPSS software. Results revealed that voluntary disclosure of forward looking information is reliable for detecting earnings management. Voluntary disclosure of sustainability, environmental and social issues provide better understanding of companies’ long term performance. Based on the findings, it was recommended among other things that companies in Nigeria should adopt voluntary disclosures to supplement the conventional reporting model, since the new forward looking reporting framework create longer term value, and also drives quality capital market decisions.

Citation: Emeka-Nwokeji, N. A.,  Ekwueme, C. M.,Okeke, P. C.(2021) Usefulness of Voluntary Disclosures in Annual Reports of Listed Companies in Nigerian: An Examination of Users’ Perception, International Journal of Business and Management Review,Vol.9, No.5, pp.22-48

Keywords: Earnings Management, Perception, Reliability, Usefulness, Voluntary Disclosure, forward looking information

Validity and Reliability of the Social Comparison Questionnaire (Published)

Social Comparison is an individual’s tendency to evaluate self-competence by comparing competencies and self-opinion with other individual competencies and opinions, in order to achieve a certain superior position. In this study, the preparation of the measurement instrument was based on the distribution of data contributed by 60 active students of the Faculty of Psychology at Atma Jaya Catholic University, Jakarta, as participants. Measuring instruments are arranged based on aspects that are assumed to form Social Comparison, namely perceptions of certain standards, perceptions of comparative opinions and perceptions of competencies Garcia, Tor and Schiff, 2013; Garcia, Tor and Gonzales, 2006). Based on knowledge of test construction, 22 items were arranged. From the results of data analysis with SPSS version 20, there were 15 items that were declared valid, with a validity score greater than 0.3. These 15 items show reliability of 0.819. Thus, the Social Comparison measuring instrument is stated to meet the rules of validity and reliability, and can be used as a measure of behavior.

Keywords: Questionnaire, Reliability, social comparison, validity

Developing Sustainability by Using Hydrological-Water Quality Model (Published)

A framework is built, wherein hydrological/water quality model is used to measure watershed sustainability. For this framework, watershed sustainability has been defined and quantified by defining social, environmental and biodiversity indicators. By providing weightage to these indicators, a “River Basin Sustainability Index” is built. The watershed sustainability is then calculated based on the concepts of reliability, resilience and vulnerability. The framework is then applied to a case study, where, based on watershed management principles, four land use scenarios are created in GIS. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used as a hydrology/water quality model. Based on the results the land uses are ranked for sustainability and policy implications have been discussed. This results show that land use (both type and location) impact watershed sustainability. The existing land use is weak in environmental sustainability. Also, riparian zones play a critical role in watershed sustainability, although beyond certain width their contribution is not significant.

Keywords: Development, Framework, Reliability, Resilience, Sustainability, Vulnerability, Watershed

Gap Analysis of Customer Expectation and Perception of Professionalism among Nigeria Police Officers: The SERVICOM Perspective (Published)

This paper investigated gap analysis of customer expectation and perception of professionalism among Nigeria police officers: the SERVICOM perspective. The study specifically examined the effect of SERVICOM on professionalism of service as well as gap between customer expectation and perception of Nigeria police service. Descriptive survey design was adopted through which structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the field. The population of the study comprised of all police officers from all ranks and files within Ekiti and Ondo States as well as consumers of police services. Convenience sampling technique was used to select 4,000 respondents which included 2,000 police officers from different ranks and files as well as 2,000 consumers of police services within the two states. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the research questions while t-test and Chi-square (ᵪ2) were used to test hypothesis one and two respectively. The level of significance was set at 5%. Findings revealed that there was significant difference between customers’ expectation and perception regarding the quality of service provided by the Nigeria Police Force. It was therefore recommended among others that Regulatory authorities in the Nigerian Police Force should take steps to ensure that the operations of the Force are, to some extent, consistent with the expectations of customers as this will help to minimize the discrepancies between customers’ expectation of services and the actual service realized from the Force.

Keywords: Nigeria police, Reliability, Servicom, Tangibility, awareness, professionalism

Developing Sustainability by Using Hydrological/Water Quality Model (Published)

A framework is built, wherein hydrological/water quality model is used to measure watershed sustainability. For this framework, watershed sustainability has been defined and quantified by defining social, environmental and biodiversity indicators. By providing weightage to these indicators, a “River Basin Sustainability Index” is built. The watershed sustainability is then calculated based on the concepts of reliability, resilience and vulnerability. The framework is then applied to a case study, where, based on watershed management principles, four land use scenarios are created in GIS. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used as a hydrology/water quality model. Based on the results the land uses are ranked for sustainability and policy implications have been discussed. This results show that land use (both type and location) impact watershed sustainability. The existing land use is weak in environmental sustainability. Also, riparian zones play a critical role in watershed sustainability, although beyond certain width their contribution is not significant.

Keywords: Development, Framework, Reliability, Resilience, Sustainability, Vulnerability, Watershed

Leveraging Work Ethics to Drive Teachers’ Productivity in Ondo State, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined the relationship between work ethics and teachers’ productivity in Ondo state, Nigeria. The study adapted descriptive research design of the survey type. The population consisted of all the teachers of private secondary schools in Ondo state, Nigeria. The sample used was made up of 240 teachers selected from 24 secondary schools, using simple random sampling procedure. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed a relationship between dedication and teachers’ productivity. The findings also showed relationship between accountability and teachers’ productivity. The study found that there was relationship between reliability/dependability and teachers’ productivity. The study further revealed relationship between discipline and teachers’ productivity. Based on findings, it was therefore recommended that teachers should be made to understand by their supervisors that work ethic is a set of moral principles that should be adopted in their respective schools, so as to increase their productivity.

Keywords: Accountability, Discipline, Reliability, Teachers Productivity, Work ethics, dedication

Predicting Software Reliability and Defects Using Bayesian Networks (Published)

This paper reviews the use of Bayesian networks (BNs) in predicting software reliability and software defects. The approach allows analysts to incorporate causal process factors as well as combine qualitative and quantitative measures, hence overcoming some of the well-known limitations of traditional software metrics methods. The approach has been used and reported on by organizations such as Motorola, Siemens, and Philips. However, one of the impediments to more widespread use of BNs for this type of application was that, traditionally, BN tools and algorithms suffered from an obvious ‘Achilles’ heel’ – they were not able to handle continuous nodes properly, if at all. This forced modelers to have to predefine discretization intervals in advance and resulted in inaccurate predictions where the range, for example, of defect counts was large. Fortunately, recent advances in BN algorithms now make it possible to perform inference in BNs with continuous nodes, without the need to pre-specify discretization levels. Using such ‘dynamic discretization’ algorithms results in significantly improved accuracy for reliability and defects prediction type models.

Keywords: Bayesian Networks, Defects, Predicting, Reliability, Software

An Assessment of the Reliability of Secondary Data in Management Science Research (Published)

Secondary data (SD) provides major advantage in the use of existing data sources, with large amounts of information, at relatively cheaper cost and easily available for research purposes. Even some researchers argue that millions of person-years of experience in the database will be available through SD, which would be impossible to collect in prospective studies. But an unreliable data could impede on the quality of research results and conclusions. The study critical examination of literature has identified tools that can aid the assessment of SD reliability. The study believes that the use of the adjusted inter-raters/observer as proposed by the study will add value to the method of assessing the reliability of SD, because of it use of statistical tools to directly estimate the available data. The study also believes that this will serve as a base for other researchers to improve on the study of assessing the reliability of secondary data.

Keywords: Inter-raters/observer, Reliability, Secondary data, validity

Intelligibility and Reliability of the Language of Agricultural Inputs in Cameroon (Published)

This research set out to investigate the extent to which the language of agricultural inputs (chemicals) sold in Cameroon markets is intelligible and reliable to farmers, most especially the rural farmers.  The South West, North West, West and Far North Regions were taken as case studies. Data was collected from inscriptions on inputs, farmers’ questionnaires, interviews with input sellers, agricultural experts and farmers, as well as personal observation of the researchers. The data was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively following Swales (1990) and Bhatia’s (1993) approaches to genre analysis. The findings from questionnaires and interviews revealed that the language of agricultural input products use in Cameroon is less intelligible to rural farmers. This is because of the scientific nature, the formulae and abbreviations used which are difficult for a non- agricultural expert to understand and the fact that most rural farmers have low educational levels. Moreover, some chemicals sold in Cameroon markets do not have labeling and the language of withdrawal period. In addition, the result from questionnaires, interviews and personal experiences revealed that the language of most inputs like fungicide and herbicide are unreliable. Those who respect the application as prescribed on the chemicals fail in their farms and those who violate succeed. This unreliability and absence of instructional language have negative impacts on agricultural output and human health.

 

Keywords: Agricultural inputs, Cameroon, Intelligibility, Language, Reliability

Statistical Analysis: Internal-Consistency Reliability and Construct Validity (Published)

In testing a proposed model of any academic field, huge extents of data are collected and analyzed through a proposed or adopted scale by researchers.  It is very significant to test the reliability and the construct validity of this scale.   This study aims to explore the important strategies or tools that should be followed to achieve a reliable and valid scale. It also aims to study the two concepts in association with scale testing as well as to afford a snapshot of the recent understandings of the reliability and validity of scale tests as expressed in previous research studies. This paper emphasis mainly on the theoretical and practical parts of reliability, and the affiliation between the two perceptions. Seeking to synthesize research results about the construct validity and internal-consistency reliability of items (factors), we focus on the four main measurements: Cronbach’s alpha, inter- item correlation, corrected item – total correlation, and Cronbach’s alpha if item deleted.  These measurements would provide researchers with a clear knowledge about purifying the survey’s scale before using it in collecting the data set. This kind of research is required so that a complete understanding of the construct validity and internal – consistency reliability of items is realized. 

Keywords: : Scale, Construct, Cronbach’s Alpha, Internal-Consistency, Reliability, validity

QOS Reliability and Improvement for Congestion Probability Routing in ATM Networks (Published)

The other primitives for switch management and control are borrowed heavily from the specified protocol. They include priority for switch configuration port and switch management VP management and permanent measurement. The protocol was implemented and integrated with the OPNET platform. Without going into specifies of the protocol we describe its design principles and show how it has affected in the protocol. Traditional connection switches include an embedded processor that implements both the switch control and network signaling. The objective of CAC is to keep the network load moderate to achieve a performance objective associated with QOS. Cell loss ratio a key QOS parameter in ATM networks is essential for proper network resources dimensioning, congestion control , bandwidth allocation and routing.

Keywords: Congestion Probability, Improvement, QOS, Reliability

Analysing Qualitative Data Using Facial Expressions in an Educational Scenario (Published)

In communication, both verbal and non-verbal means ensure that a message is conveyed, and facial expressions are acknowledged as one of the most influential factors in non-verbal communication. Facial Analysis Coding System (FACS) is a tool to analyse data other than the spoken language to improve a researcher’s reading of an interviewee’s emotions, and proposes a methodology to support the annotation process of facial expressions in a piece of communication. This study investigates an applied framework for FACS in an educational scenario. The study combines both the computerised and manual entries in the applied method. The study addresses the challenges, findings and recommendations of this applied method. 

Keywords: Emotions, Facial Expression, Non-Verbal, Reliability, Software, qualitative

Determinants that Influence an Effective Performance Management System in Public Health Institutions in Kenya: A Case of Coast Provincial General Hospital (Published)

The objective of this study was to establish the determinants of an effective performance management system in Public Health Institutions in Kenya. The study specifically investigated the case of Coast Provincial General Hospital (CPGH). Primary data was collected by use of a questionnaire which was distributed to a population constituting of 45 heads of departments. Data was analysed using descriptive statistical techniques. Multiple regression analysis technique was used to explain the nature of the relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables in the study. The study found that no significant relationship existed between the variables strategic congruence, viability, reliability, acceptability and the performance of Coast Provincial General Hospital respectively. The study however found that a positive and significant relationship existed between specificity and performance of the employees of Coast Provincial General Hospital. It was concluded that, performance management system was an important tool to continuously monitor employees’ performance, identify skill gaps and develop required competencies.

Keywords: Acceptance, Performance Appraisal, Reliability, Specificity, Strategic congruence, validity

A Review of Educational Assessment: Reliability, Validity and Relationship with Learning—the Case of Northern Ireland (Ni) Transfer Tests Policy and Practice (Published)

Northern Ireland 11+ transfer tests policy is a long-standing debatable issue. Presently, the transfer-tests are divided into two distinct test types and they are colloquially known as the AQE (the Association of Quality Education) as well as the GL (Granada Learning) tests which are non-statutory as the government removed the NI transfer tests in 2008. But, previously these tests were called 11+ exams in which all students took the same tests for grammar school admission. This study aims to evaluate the current NI transfer test policy in light of its reliability, validity, and relationship with learning. The analysis of NI transfer tests traces a number of complications and dilemmas such as unfaithful scoring and grading systems as they contain a lack of transparency. The tests policy also fosters a conflict between the sense of deprivation and advantage. The policy also bewilders a group of   pupils, and develops some negative effects on learning. In a word, there are little positive outcomes of these testing systems. Rather, a serious disastrous effect has been culminated in the absence of government care. Henceforth, an alternative transfer testing procedure is essential to be embedded in the NI education system which can fit well with all students in general.

Keywords: Learning, Reliability, transfer test policy, validity

Reliability Analysis of Symmetrical Columns with Eccentric Loading (Published)

This paper presents the reliability of the symmetrical columns with eccentric loading about one and two axes due to the maximum intensity stress and minimum intensity stress. In this paper a new lifetime distribution is introduced which is obtained by compounding exponential and gamma distributions (named as Lindley Distribution [L D]). Hazard rate, Mean time to failure has been discussed. It is observed from the results that the Reliability is decreasing when the load and scale parameter (  are increasing. It is observed that the area of cross section increased from 1000mm2 to 10000mm2 caused the increasing of reliability from 0.50 to 0.93 at minimum intensity.

Keywords: Eccentric load., Hazard rate Mean time to Failure, Intensity stress, Lindley distribution, Reliability

Characteristics of a System in Abnormal Weather Conditions by Using L Apl Ace Transforms (Published)

The research studies the availability and reliability to a system in which each unit of two modes, (normal, total failure) in two weather conditions- normal and stormy. To calculate reliability, the differential eq. of system resolved by Laplace Transform (L .T) depend on Complex imagine roots. Suppose the system rate of failure and rates of change of weather conditions are constant and the rate for repair of every unit are exponential distribution. The distribution of repair time be based on starting state of repair and not with the change in weather. we analysis graphically to watch the impress of several system parameters in mean time failure and availability.  

Keywords: Availability, Change of Weather Conditions., Laplace transform., Mttf, Reliability, State Dependent System

Reliability and Availability Analysis of Two–Dissimilar Units by Using Laplace Transforms (Published)

The paper studies the reliability and availability of two dissimilar units. In order to calculate reliability, a state dependent system can be converted into the system of first order ordinary differential equations based on Laplace Transform technique. The system of ordinary differential equations is solved using Inverse Laplace depend on Complex Conjugate roots. Let failure rate and repair rate of each unit are taken as an exponential distribution. Availability, reliability and the mean time to failure are derived. We analysis graphically to observe the effect of various systems Parameters on the availability system and mean time to failure.

Keywords: Availability, Laplace transform., Mttf, Reliability, State Dependent System

IELTS Academic Reading Module Test: Validity and Reliability (Published)

The testing of reading comprehension seems deceptively simple when compared to the testing of other abilities. The basic problem is that the language tester is expected to set tasks that will not only lead the candidate to use reading skills but will also result in behavior that provides clear evidence of the successful use of those skills. This paper aims to evaluate the IELTS Academic Reading Module Test in detail, examining its validity and reliability and discussing how far its format, operations, conditions, and techniques meet its purpose. The paper focuses mainly on the test scoring rules, which appear to be strict in terms of spelling, grammar, and the number of words required for written responses. It concludes with some recommendations on ways in which the validity and reliability of IELTS reading scoring rules could be improved.

Keywords: Conditions Validity, Evaluation, Format, IELTS Academic Reading Module Test, Operations, Reliability, Scoring Rules