This paper reviews the use of Bayesian networks (BNs) in predicting software reliability and software defects. The approach allows analysts to incorporate causal process factors as well as combine qualitative and quantitative measures, hence overcoming some of the well-known limitations of traditional software metrics methods. The approach has been used and reported on by organizations such as Motorola, Siemens, and Philips. However, one of the impediments to more widespread use of BNs for this type of application was that, traditionally, BN tools and algorithms suffered from an obvious ‘Achilles’ heel’ – they were not able to handle continuous nodes properly, if at all. This forced modelers to have to predefine discretization intervals in advance and resulted in inaccurate predictions where the range, for example, of defect counts was large. Fortunately, recent advances in BN algorithms now make it possible to perform inference in BNs with continuous nodes, without the need to pre-specify discretization levels. Using such ‘dynamic discretization’ algorithms results in significantly improved accuracy for reliability and defects prediction type models.
Secondary data (SD) provides major advantage in the use of existing data sources, with large amounts of information, at relatively cheaper cost and easily available for research purposes. Even some researchers argue that millions of person-years of experience in the database will be available through SD, which would be impossible to collect in prospective studies. But an unreliable data could impede on the quality of research results and conclusions. The study critical examination of literature has identified tools that can aid the assessment of SD reliability. The study believes that the use of the adjusted inter-raters/observer as proposed by the study will add value to the method of assessing the reliability of SD, because of it use of statistical tools to directly estimate the available data. The study also believes that this will serve as a base for other researchers to improve on the study of assessing the reliability of secondary data.
This research set out to investigate the extent to which the language of agricultural inputs (chemicals) sold in Cameroon markets is intelligible and reliable to farmers, most especially the rural farmers. The South West, North West, West and Far North Regions were taken as case studies. Data was collected from inscriptions on inputs, farmers’ questionnaires, interviews with input sellers, agricultural experts and farmers, as well as personal observation of the researchers. The data was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively following Swales (1990) and Bhatia’s (1993) approaches to genre analysis. The findings from questionnaires and interviews revealed that the language of agricultural input products use in Cameroon is less intelligible to rural farmers. This is because of the scientific nature, the formulae and abbreviations used which are difficult for a non- agricultural expert to understand and the fact that most rural farmers have low educational levels. Moreover, some chemicals sold in Cameroon markets do not have labeling and the language of withdrawal period. In addition, the result from questionnaires, interviews and personal experiences revealed that the language of most inputs like fungicide and herbicide are unreliable. Those who respect the application as prescribed on the chemicals fail in their farms and those who violate succeed. This unreliability and absence of instructional language have negative impacts on agricultural output and human health.
In testing a proposed model of any academic field, huge extents of data are collected and analyzed through a proposed or adopted scale by researchers. It is very significant to test the reliability and the construct validity of this scale. This study aims to explore the important strategies or tools that should be followed to achieve a reliable and valid scale. It also aims to study the two concepts in association with scale testing as well as to afford a snapshot of the recent understandings of the reliability and validity of scale tests as expressed in previous research studies. This paper emphasis mainly on the theoretical and practical parts of reliability, and the affiliation between the two perceptions. Seeking to synthesize research results about the construct validity and internal-consistency reliability of items (factors), we focus on the four main measurements: Cronbach’s alpha, inter- item correlation, corrected item – total correlation, and Cronbach’s alpha if item deleted. These measurements would provide researchers with a clear knowledge about purifying the survey’s scale before using it in collecting the data set. This kind of research is required so that a complete understanding of the construct validity and internal – consistency reliability of items is realized.
The other primitives for switch management and control are borrowed heavily from the specified protocol. They include priority for switch configuration port and switch management VP management and permanent measurement. The protocol was implemented and integrated with the OPNET platform. Without going into specifies of the protocol we describe its design principles and show how it has affected in the protocol. Traditional connection switches include an embedded processor that implements both the switch control and network signaling. The objective of CAC is to keep the network load moderate to achieve a performance objective associated with QOS. Cell loss ratio a key QOS parameter in ATM networks is essential for proper network resources dimensioning, congestion control , bandwidth allocation and routing.
Analysing Qualitative Data Using Facial Expressions in an Educational Scenario (Published)
In communication, both verbal and non-verbal means ensure that a message is conveyed, and facial expressions are acknowledged as one of the most influential factors in non-verbal communication. Facial Analysis Coding System (FACS) is a tool to analyse data other than the spoken language to improve a researcher’s reading of an interviewee’s emotions, and proposes a methodology to support the annotation process of facial expressions in a piece of communication. This study investigates an applied framework for FACS in an educational scenario. The study combines both the computerised and manual entries in the applied method. The study addresses the challenges, findings and recommendations of this applied method.
Determinants that Influence an Effective Performance Management System in Public Health Institutions in Kenya: A Case of Coast Provincial General Hospital (Published)
The objective of this study was to establish the determinants of an effective performance management system in Public Health Institutions in Kenya. The study specifically investigated the case of Coast Provincial General Hospital (CPGH). Primary data was collected by use of a questionnaire which was distributed to a population constituting of 45 heads of departments. Data was analysed using descriptive statistical techniques. Multiple regression analysis technique was used to explain the nature of the relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables in the study. The study found that no significant relationship existed between the variables strategic congruence, viability, reliability, acceptability and the performance of Coast Provincial General Hospital respectively. The study however found that a positive and significant relationship existed between specificity and performance of the employees of Coast Provincial General Hospital. It was concluded that, performance management system was an important tool to continuously monitor employees’ performance, identify skill gaps and develop required competencies.
A Review of Educational Assessment: Reliability, Validity and Relationship with Learning—the Case of Northern Ireland (Ni) Transfer Tests Policy and Practice (Published)
Northern Ireland 11+ transfer tests policy is a long-standing debatable issue. Presently, the transfer-tests are divided into two distinct test types and they are colloquially known as the AQE (the Association of Quality Education) as well as the GL (Granada Learning) tests which are non-statutory as the government removed the NI transfer tests in 2008. But, previously these tests were called 11+ exams in which all students took the same tests for grammar school admission. This study aims to evaluate the current NI transfer test policy in light of its reliability, validity, and relationship with learning. The analysis of NI transfer tests traces a number of complications and dilemmas such as unfaithful scoring and grading systems as they contain a lack of transparency. The tests policy also fosters a conflict between the sense of deprivation and advantage. The policy also bewilders a group of pupils, and develops some negative effects on learning. In a word, there are little positive outcomes of these testing systems. Rather, a serious disastrous effect has been culminated in the absence of government care. Henceforth, an alternative transfer testing procedure is essential to be embedded in the NI education system which can fit well with all students in general.
This paper presents the reliability of the symmetrical columns with eccentric loading about one and two axes due to the maximum intensity stress and minimum intensity stress. In this paper a new lifetime distribution is introduced which is obtained by compounding exponential and gamma distributions (named as Lindley Distribution [L D]). Hazard rate, Mean time to failure has been discussed. It is observed from the results that the Reliability is decreasing when the load and scale parameter ( are increasing. It is observed that the area of cross section increased from 1000mm2 to 10000mm2 caused the increasing of reliability from 0.50 to 0.93 at minimum intensity.
Characteristics of a System in Abnormal Weather Conditions by Using L Apl Ace Transforms (Published)
The research studies the availability and reliability to a system in which each unit of two modes, (normal, total failure) in two weather conditions- normal and stormy. To calculate reliability, the differential eq. of system resolved by Laplace Transform (L .T) depend on Complex imagine roots. Suppose the system rate of failure and rates of change of weather conditions are constant and the rate for repair of every unit are exponential distribution. The distribution of repair time be based on starting state of repair and not with the change in weather. we analysis graphically to watch the impress of several system parameters in mean time failure and availability.
Reliability and Availability Analysis of Two–Dissimilar Units by Using Laplace Transforms (Published)
The paper studies the reliability and availability of two dissimilar units. In order to calculate reliability, a state dependent system can be converted into the system of first order ordinary differential equations based on Laplace Transform technique. The system of ordinary differential equations is solved using Inverse Laplace depend on Complex Conjugate roots. Let failure rate and repair rate of each unit are taken as an exponential distribution. Availability, reliability and the mean time to failure are derived. We analysis graphically to observe the effect of various systems Parameters on the availability system and mean time to failure.
The testing of reading comprehension seems deceptively simple when compared to the testing of other abilities. The basic problem is that the language tester is expected to set tasks that will not only lead the candidate to use reading skills but will also result in behavior that provides clear evidence of the successful use of those skills. This paper aims to evaluate the IELTS Academic Reading Module Test in detail, examining its validity and reliability and discussing how far its format, operations, conditions, and techniques meet its purpose. The paper focuses mainly on the test scoring rules, which appear to be strict in terms of spelling, grammar, and the number of words required for written responses. It concludes with some recommendations on ways in which the validity and reliability of IELTS reading scoring rules could be improved.
Effect of Service Quality Dimensions on Customer Satisfaction: A Comparative Analysis of Pakistan Telecom Sector (Published)
The purpose of this study is to establish the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction. Two main dimensions of service quality were taken i.e. reliability and empathy. This is a quantitative analysis and the data was collected in the form of communication-based questionnaires. The sample size was 400 respondents and four main telecom service providers were considered for the study. The results were calculated by analytical software SPSS-20. It was concluded that service reliability and service empathy both have an effect on customer satisfaction. It was also determined that some factors were more satisfactory than the others. The findings of study reveal that percentages of customer satisfaction change with the service quality dimensions of reliability and empathy. Overall, it can be established that there is a significant relationship between customer satisfaction and service quality dimensions of empathy and reliability.
ASSESSING THE ROLE OF QUALITY SERVICE DELIVERY IN CLIENT CHOICE FOR HEALTHCARE: A CASE STUDY OF BECHEM GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL AND GREEN HILL HOSPITAL (Published)
Healthcare is one of the Ghana’s biggest sectors, in terms of revenue and Employment. With Ghanaians fast growing purchasing power, patients are willing to avail themselves with good quality healthcare deliveries. As a result, it is essential for health facilities to evaluate the quality of service being delivered.. Service Industries are now focusing on service quality so as to drive high levels of patients satisfaction (Kumar et al., 2008).This study sought to investigate the reason for client choice for a healthcare in Bechem Government Hospital and Green Hill Hospital. The research used quantitative research methods to collect and analyze data. The statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for quantitative data collection.From the respondents view point, the private hospital was rated better in terms of the reliability, responsiveness, empathy and tangibility as compared to Bechem Government Hospital. These means that management of Bechem Government Hospital need to improve more on these factors.Again, on the factors that affect quality healthcare delivery the private hospital was ranked higher than the public hospital (Bechem Government Hospital). The author therefore recommends the use of SERVQUAL model for the government Hospital used in this research. The SERVQUAL model will help the hospital to improve upon the gap identified in performing its service and consequently satisfy the patients.
The main aim of this study is to examine the effect of service quality dimensions on customer loyalty to the providers of retail banking services. It investigates the relationship between service quality dimensions and customer loyalty. To achieve this purpose, data was collected from a sample of 384 current customers of commercial banks on the five dimensions of service delivery: tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. The results indicate that all the dimensions of service quality have a positive and significant influence on customer loyalty in retail banking .This finding reinforces the need for bank managers to place an emphasis on the underlying dimensions of service quality in order to create and maintain customer loyalty