Tag Archives: Relationship

Experiences of child sexual abuse in homosexual, heterosexual and bisexual people (Published)

The objective of this research was to describe the experience of child sexual abuse in men and women and the construction of their sexual orientation. The study was qualitative with exploratory scop. The sample was selective, consisting of 6 people, a heterosexual man and a woman; a homosexual man and woman and a bisexual woman and man. A semi-structured interview was included, the following aspects of analysis: experiences before, during and after child sexual abuse; discovery of sexual orientation / preference sexual, sexual fantasies, relationship with parents, and couples. The Atlas ti software in version 7 was used for the analysis. A free coding was carried out, to later make an axial coding in which general categories were obtained that encompass several codes at the same time and that allowed us to create a network of experiences and meanings regarding the aspects of analysis. After sexual abuse, the subjects are afraid, confused and isolated. The subjects describe the insecurity of having sexual intercourse that is attributed to previous experience of sexual abuse. People who have become homosexual and bisexual mention that sexual abuse may have influenced their orientation and they mention it. One of the subjects described as homosexual is mentioned as the cost of work the expression of their sexual orientation and the rape of a man caused fear to men. Five of the six subjects’ feelings of pleasure to have been abused and at the same time present the emotions of fear, disgust and anger, which caused confusion.

Keywords: Child Sexual Abuse, Relationship, Sexual Orientation, Sexuality, experience of abuse

Outcome of Prayer: A Study of Children in Selected Denominations in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

Prayer has been assumed to cause different effects  on the life of the praying individual. On one side, prayer could imply on the emotional status, individual growth and the on the personal needs of the individual among others. On the other side, it may cause depression and unhappiness especially when the desired response did not happen. This study was set out to investigate whether the above argument applies to the lives of younger and older children of ages 7-8 and 11-12 respectively in four selected churches in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study adopted phenomenological qualitative design with Semi-structured interviews and conversations, uncompleted sentences, picture projection and letter writing to God as methods for collecting data. The raw data was gathered, transcribed, coded, classified and re-classified until meaningful patterns and themes emerged after which they were analysed with the help of NVivo. 11 Pro. This study discovered that the effects of the children’s prayer are directly related to their reasons for praying; that as they pray, children experience a deep relationship with God, dialogue with Him verbally and non-verbally, and act upon instructions they believe come from God. It was revealed that children’s emotions and feelings are affected negatively or positively based on the stage of development as discussed in Piaget’s theory of Cognitive Development that formed the foundation for this study.  

Keywords: CAC, CCN, Denomination, Effect, God, MFM, NBC, Nigeria, Older Children, Relationship, Theme, Younger Children, prayer

Practitioner-Patient Relationship: An Evaluation of Perceptions in Ghana (Published)

The relationship between health practitioners and their clients is central to the practice of healthcare as well as essential to the delivery of quality diagnosis and treatment of diseases. It forms one of the foundations of modern-day healthcare ethics; thus, a keystone of general healthcare. As expected of medical practitioners to maintain a serene and professional rapport with clients, support clients’ dignity, and respect their position in the continuous development of health care, patients, on the other hand, are also anticipated not to annihilate this relationship. In Ghana, for instance, this relationship seems not to have obtained absolute appreciation, thereby hindering its helpful effects on healthcare delivery in general. As its purpose, the paper evaluates knowledge and perceptions concerning patient-practitioner relationship in Ghana to understand the context within which this relationship operates. This research -conducted in 2 districts in the Ashanti region of Ghana -involved a sample size of 300 respondents (78 healthcare professionals from 13 health institutions and 222 clients). A systematic search with questionnaires and interviews as research tools were used in gathering data. Respondents (over 85 per cent) exhibited a higher level of knowledge as regards health professional-patient relationship. Respondents were, however, divided as to whether or not this relationship was a positive one in their respective health centres. While some respondents (mostly health personnel) believed that the relationship was cordial, others (mostly patients) taught otherwise. This research is made relevant since there is considerable curative power in proper alliance between patients and health practitioners

Keywords: Evaluation, Health Care Practitioner, Patient., Perceptions, Relationship

Finding the Nexus between Students’ Profiles and Attitude towards ESP: The Case of Vietnamese Medical Students Purposes (Published)

The aim of this research is to determine the relationship between students’ profile and their attitude in learning English as a foreign language. The respondents were 82 second year undergraduate students studying medicine at Thaibinh University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Vietnam. The research instrument is a Likert questionnaire including two parts: Bio Data and Attitude towards ESP. The study was basically a quantitative research utilizing the descriptive-correlational method and SPSS software to describe and investigate the relationship between students’ select profile variables and their attitude towards English for Specific Purposes (ESP). The findings from this study illustrated that there is a significant relationship between Thaibinh medical students’ attitude towards ESP and their mothers’ education, number of years of studying English, grades in EGP (English for General Purposes) and ESP and native language. Findings also revealed that the profile variables not related to the students’ attitude towards ESP are fathers’ educational attainment and sex.

Keywords: ESP, Medical Student, Relationship, attitude, profile

The Relationship between surface water temperature and dissolved oxygen in River Benue at Makurdi (Published)

Poor sanitation practice is very common in the developing nations of the world as it is observed in Nigeria and River Benue at Makurdi. Waste are indiscriminately dumped in the river without recourse to the harm of the waste on the biodiversity of the river.  To access the ecological integrity of river Benue at Makurdi, water samples were collected for two years from July 2011 to June 2013. Surface water temperature and dissolved oxygen content of the water samples were determined insitu using standard measuring metres in line with standard methods. The correlation analysis between DO and surface water temperature in River Benue at Makurdi showed that correlation was significant at the brewery location   only during the course of the study. Across the study locations in river Benue during the study period indicate that the R2 valued varied from 0.0006- 0.17 indicating a very weak relationship between surface water temperature and dissolved oxygen in River Benue.  The lowest   R2 value of 0.0006 was obtained at Mikap Nigeria Ltd and the highest R2      value of 0.17 was at Brewery location during the period of the study. This results showed clearly the DO content of river Benue at Makurdi depend on the organic waste dumped in the river and not surface water temperature. It was recommended that indiscriminate dumping of waste in to river should be discouraged

Keywords: DO, Relationship, River Benue, Surface water temperature

Teacher- Student Relationship (Published)

The purpose of this study is to investigate teacher student relationship from the students’ point views in Umm- Alqura University. Data was collected byA questionnaire that was distributed on (293) on both female (171) and male (122) students. Students ranged from freshmen (65), juniors (87), sophomores (84) and seniors (57) in both the education (162) and scientific (131) fields. The questionnaire distributed consisted of 25 items on a likert scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data was then analyzed and the results showed no significant difference found among students’ gender, college and year of study.


Keywords: Relationship, Student, Teacher

The Relationship between Life Expectancy and Health Spending (Published)

This article shows the relationship between health spending per capita and life expectancy in the OECD. Most countries are grouped around a 45 degree line with life expectancy duly rising with spending. Health care expenditures and life expectancy have both been   rising in many countries, including in the Netherlands. However, it is unclear to what extent increased health care spending caused   the increase in life expectancy. Establishing a causal link between   health care expenditures and mortality is difficult for several   reasons.


Keywords: GDP, OECD, Relationship, health spending, life expectancy

Good Governance: Role of Public Servants in Nigeria (Published)

Governance has become so vast and complex that the government of the people, for the people and by the people has become the government of the people, by the government and for the people. The logic behind the idea of governance supports the development of political and administrative structures that offer the potentials for political stability and national development. Public servant in this regard plays significant role for the successful achievement of good governance. This study is expected to explain the relationship between politicians, public servants and good governance while it further revealed the efficiency of the application of the law in force, the efficacy of the decisions made by government, and the political responsibility and accountability of elected officials in relation to the demand expressed by civil society. The study is qualitative in nature, as it based its theoretical framework on structural functionalism. It submits that there is need for full respect for citizen’s rights as the public service is a major change agent in Nigeria’s quest for enhanced progress, hence the on-going reformation of the Nigerian public service is in line to achieve the purpose of good governance and deal with the challenges therein.

Keywords: Good Governance, Political Office Holders, Public Servant, Relationship

Parental Patterns in Socialization: A Factor in Moral Behaviour of Secondary School Students in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State (Published)

The study is designed to investigate parental patterns in socialization a factor in moral behaviour of secondary school students in Abakaliki education zone of Ebonyi State. Two research questions were raised to guide the study. Descriptive survey design adopted to find out if parental pattern in socialization is a factor in moral behaviour of students; the area of the study is Abakaliki education zone of Ebonyi State, while the population comprised all the 52 government owned schools. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 400 students out of the 10,427 students in the area. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents.  Mean was used to analyze data obtained.  The result revealed that parental patterns in socialization is a major factor that predisposes the children’s behaviour either morally or immorally and suggested that parental choice of good training patterns will enhance the moral behaviour of their children positively. Based on the findings, recommendations were made on how to make positive impact on children’s life as prescribed by Christian doctrine or precept.

Keywords: Moral behaviour, Parenting, Patterns, Relationship, Socialization

The Journey as Structural and Instrumental Technique in Nigerian Children’s Fiction (Published)

One unique feature of Nigerian children’s literature is the exploitation of the framework of journey to establish the relationship between the physical journey and the journey of life. Thus, the major characters in most books for children are always on a journey. This is very significant, as it helps the child brave up for the unpredictability of life, especially at this time when his mind is still impressionistic. Through textual analysis of select Nigerian children’s fiction, this paper reveals that the journey as used in these children’s books does not only serve structural purposes but also didactic and instructional.

Keywords: Fiction, Journey, Life, Literature, Nigeria, Relationship, children

Skepticism and Doubt: A Study of Interpersonal Relationships in E.M. Forster’s A Passage to India (Published)

Through a close reading of E.M. Forster’s A Passage to India (1924), this paper seeks to expose the various personal relationships depicted in the novel. It also sheds light on the two nations described, the colonizer, represented by the British, and the colonized, represented by the Indians, and their attitudes towards each other. The analytical approach will be adopted throughout the paper. The paper tries to answer a vital question, posed by some Indian characters at the beginning of the narrative: Whether the British and the Indians can be friends. To achieve this end and to answer this question, the main focus will be on the exploration of different relationships developed throughout the text. Some critics have remarked that Forster was over-critical in his portrayal of the Anglo-Indians. Many Englishmen were annoyed and even offended with Forster for writing such a book. But impartial people never take such criticism seriously. A Passage to India is a superbly realistic novel with some unrealistic flashes here and there. The novel reflects the courageous vision of the unembarrassed and unprejudiced observer of the Indian National Scene. Where he deviated from facts and succumbed to exaggerations, the reasons are not to be sought very far. One reason may be that he was carried off his mental balance through an over-dependence on fictitious rumors set afloat by the rulers. Most of the relationships failed miserably because the soil was not fertile for them to flourish. The result of the research concluded that individual human efforts are bound to fail in the face of the inevitable march of events over which human beings have no control. Friendship is only possible among equals, and the British and the Indians were not equal at the time when this novel was written.

Keywords: A Passage to India, British, Colonizer; Colonized, Forster, Friendship, Indian, Relationship

Significance of Actors in the Maize Supply Chain for Senior High Schools in Kumasi (Published)

The study seeks to address the supply chain of maize specifically to Senior High Schools in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana, looking at the actors involved in the supply chain, their inter-relationships as well as the kind of network that connect them. Knowledge of these objectives will help any prospective merchant or any other stakeholder to be guided by what is in store for them and its effect. Questionnaire was used to gather data from sixty-eight respondents. The results indicated that there are some actors in maize supply chain who serve as the link between the main actors like the merchants and the consumers. Little assistance the actors give to one another includes discount and little financial support. There must be trust and fairness as well as availability of loan facilities, collaboration and prompt payment of debt that will help to improve the network among the actors.

Keywords: Actors, Kumasi, Maize, Relationship, Senior High Schools, Supply Chain Network

The Relationship between Parents and Adolescent Homosexuals (Published)

This article presented the relationship between parents and adolescent homosexuals. Specifically, this relationship is expressed through the parental role for adolescent homosexuals; the reason publicly adolescent homosexuals or not publicly available to parents about homosexual tendencies.

Keywords: Adolescent, Relationship, homosexual.


This paper uses a predominantly quantitative approach to establish the relationship between error correction feedback mechanisms and students’ ESL writing Fluency (narrative and descriptive) amongst high school students in Botswana. A longitudinal, quasi-experimental design is used, with a control group that received no correction feedback while the experimental groups received direct, coded and uncoded feedback. The study is defined by a hypothesis that there is a relationship between feedback mechanism used and the development of fluency in students’ writing. Students were drawn from two Form 4 classes from one private co-educational secondary school. The Form 4 class was chosen because it was a pre-candidate class and the students were expected to sit for their BGCSE examination the following year in Form 5. There were 28 males and 40 females and their ages ranged between 16 years and 21 years. From the findings, no significant increases in fluency were found between the pretests and posttests. Correction success achieved by the three treatment groups when rewriting texts reflected the explicitness of the feedback, with the direct group highest, followed by the coded and uncoded groups.

Keywords: Coded feedback, Direct feedback, Fluency, Relationship, Students’ Writing, Teacher Error Correction Feedback Mechanisms, Un-coded feedback


This paper examines the effect of commodity price changes on firms’ value in the food and beverage industry in Nigeria given the frequent changes in the prices of raw materials and inflation. Using the descriptive survey research design, the study focused on secondary data obtained from the annual reports of 11 firms registered on the stock exchange, whose records provided the information required for the study. Revenue, cost of sales, and stock price were computed in order to represent company price of commodity from 2009 to 2013; while firm value comprises Earnings per Share, Earnings before Interests and Taxes and Total Assets. Findings indicate, a significant positive relationship between commodity price and firm value (p<0.05); a joint relationship between revenue, cost of sales, stock price and firm value (p=0.000); a positive slope (B= 0.221) suggesting that an increase in commodity price between 2009 and 2013, led to a proportional increase in firm value. This implies that due attention has to be paid to the issue of raw material sourcing and pricing in Nigeria. Conclusively, price fluctuation, no matter how little or much, will directly impact the price of raw materials and production of goods and services. Government and management of these industries need to pre-empt raw material price fluctuations in order to have a stable and progressive returns from investment. Arbitrary pricing of products is detrimental to progressive firm performance where market is competitive

Keywords: Firm Value, Performance, Price fluctuations, Relationship


This study aims at describing the difficulties that colonized have to face in developing the relationship through Forster’s A Passage to India under the shadow of postcolonial theory. The colonial occupation of India is very vital in the background of the novel. The novel is focusing on the relationship established between the people of the two lands the British colonies and the Indians in Chandra pore highlighting the differences of thinking in making relationship with other which is the case of the failure in making relationship with each other. The writer is trying to make friendly relationship between Indians and British but we see throughout the novel that how every character in the novel is facing difficulties in developing relationship with one another.

Keywords: Relationship, colonial issues, colonized, colonizer, difficulties, post-colonialism


The objective of this research paper is to assess the role of relationship marketing in winning customers’ loyalty in the mobile Phone industry in Pakistan. De-regularization of the telecommunication sector in Pakistan has created huge competition to capture the maximum market share. For this purpose, industry marketers and planners are exercising various relationship marketing strategies to attract new customers and retain the old ones. To analyze the role of relationship marketing in building customers’ loyalty, the author has selected four independent variables such as service quality, price perception, brand image and value offers while customer’s loyalty is taken as dependent variable. A structured questionnaire containing 24 closed ended questions was developed to collect data from the field. The data was analyzed through Likert- scale. This scale is defined with 5 options of strongly agree on 5 and strongly disagree on 1. In order to check the reliability of the variables, a reliability test was conducted on 20 respondents of different age groups with different occupations. The results of this test showed positive significant relationship among the variables. The results of this study are robust and consistent with previous studies. This study provides in-depth knowledge about mobile users and cellular companies operating in Pakistan can take benefit from it.The finding of this research study is expected to be beneficial for the managers of the mobile operators in their decisions relating to the relationship marketing issues that are connected with the needs of the customers. These needs and interests of the customers, in turn, can increase their revenue and profits in the long-run.

Keywords: Brand, Customer, Loyalty, Marketing, Quality, Relationship, Satisfaction, telecommunications


Spirituality and health have overtime been very influential to humans and in the life of every student; good health is an essential aspect in order to have a successful academic life. Being healthy is not anymore about absence of diseases or illness. It requires being in a state of complete physical, psychological, spiritual and social well-being. The article aims at examining the various views that Christian students hold concerning spirituality and health and to find out the effects that both (spirituality and health) have on the lives of students. The research was conducted among Christian students in the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, using questionnaires and interviews to seek views of students on the impact of the relationship between spirituality and health. From the findings, most of the respondents expressed a strong desire to find meaning in their lives and well-being. It was, however, observed that some students were reluctant to patronize clinical treatment when needed as a result of their staunch spirituality. Also, the paper identifies some Christian beliefs and practices which respondents considered as elements that promote good health as well as other spiritual practices that have adversely affected students’ health. It is, therefore, suggested that, for the wellbeing of students to be achieved, there should always be a balance between the two approaches, and resort to any of them when appropriate.

Keywords: Christian Spirituality, Health, Relationship, Student’ Well-being and Exploration

The Causal Correlation of Sin and Suffering (Published)

The paper analyzed the causal relation of sin and suffering, including illness. Modern/postmodern societal perception of suffering, and relationship with ill persons was studied. In addition, the Bible (the Books of Job and Luke) was investigated on the subject. The idea is to use Jesus’ actions and teachings as the assessment criteria. The study is important because it may help minimize or stop the practice of wrong accusations against victims who suffer in any way that their plight is their own doing. The findings of the paper are that: to a great extent people’s perception of illness or suffering in modern/postmodern society and that of the biblical times are similar despite the enormous social and historical gap between both eras. Illness or suffering is seen as a reflection of the sinful state of the victim. This explains why people disassociate with victims of ‘disgraceful’ illnesses. The study concludes that to a large extent, modern perception of illness, particularly, of the debilitating ones, as well as relationship with victims are unethical because it does not tally with that of Jesus whose way of life, actions and teachings form the fons et culmen of Christian ethics and therefore, must be corrected.

Keywords: Correlation, Illness, Perception, Relationship, Retribution, Sin, Suffering