Tag Archives: Regulations.

Reforms and Regulations in Chinese Banks – Developments and Recommendations for Improved Supervision (Published)

It is a well-known fact that the P.R.C. has been undergoing tremendous economic growth and commercial development. This has impacts not only on the Chinese economy but also on the world economy. This development is not possible without the participation on the nation’s banks. Therefore, in this paper, I first introduce the banking system in China. Then, I explore the developments in reforms and regulations within the Banks in China.  I do so through analyzing 3 key areas of reforms: legal reforms, reforms in corporate governance, and structural reforms. Then, I discuss current trends in banking and finally give my recommendations for increased enforcement and increased competitive of China’s banks.


Keywords: Chinese banks, Reforms, Regulations., developments, improved supervision

The Assessment of Kurdistan Region’s Investment Law and Its Impacts on Foreign Direct Investment (Published)

The Kurdistan Region’s investment Law. No. (6) of 2006 was a great move by the government to attract foreign companies to invest their money in Kurdistan Region. Therefore, the side effects of investment law in Kurdistan is controversial. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of Investment Law on FDI in Kurdistan. It also intended to assess the importance of this law in developing different economic sector of the Region. The qualitative data was collected through face to face interview with experts and law professionals. The findings indicated that the Law becomes an important tool to attract foreign companies in the first place and hundreds of projects has been implemented which was difficult to be done without such laws. However, the study identified negative impacts of this law in the future. The law was found to be very less advantageous for the local populations and the government comparing to investors. The law has provided several incentives to the investors which might even pose national security issue in the future as investors are given loans and lands to make projects. The law has to be revised and amended as the KRG has already passed the first stage of investment and now needs mega projects and more benefits.

Keywords: Business Law, FDI, Investment Law, Kurdistan Region, Regulations.

Retrieving Sex Work from the Nigerian Court (Published)

The court of public opinion in the Nigerian state is greatly titled against women in sex work (prostitution). This position of the court of public opinion stemmed from the non recognition of sex work as legitimate work and the laws used in the governance of women. Again the consequence(s) of this position of the court of public opinion on sex work is for the trade to be driven underground thus being prone to human rights abuses. The human rights abuses suffered by women in sex work in Nigeria are in direct contradiction to the principles of the universal human rights declaration of 1948. The crux of matter is whether the Nigerian state and its agents especially when cognizance is given to the universal human declaration have the rights to disparaged women in sex work. Furthermore does the Nigerian “woman” have the right of going into sex work? The attempt to answering to these questions through this paper did inadvertently set the tone and direction for this paper thus the recommendations canvassed herein which includes the women having rights over her body and having the capacity to make rational choices.

Keywords: Abolisionism, Human Rights, Regulations., Sex Work, Universal Human Rights Declarations Sex Worker, and Criminalization.


No country can exist in isolation as an island, trade wise. This is because, it cannot own all it needs or requires. It must therefore engage in some form of trade with other countries to buy what it needs and also, sell what it has. This way, it can maintain an economic balance. International Trade allows us to expand our markets for both goods and services that otherwise may not have been available to us. It is for this reason that a person in Nigeria can pick between a Japanese, German or American product such as, electronics or cars. Because of international trade, there is greater competition to provide cheaper products to the consumer so as to attract more trade relationships. International trading partners or organizations conduct business today without having to meet or speak with each other. Transactional, uncertainties about the method of trade or risk of loss could be increased if there is inadequate knowledge of the payment options that are available. As a result of such uncertainties, the likelihood of trade could therefore be reduced reduced. Because of awareness of the increasing globalization of trade, private sector development programs have looked for ways to implement trade promotion initiatives, through import and export programs, production of high-value crops for export, creation of business development centers and other trade related programs which require the participants to have a good understanding of some of the most critical aspects of trade such as the nature of trade and getting paid. As new technologies and advancements in communications are improving trade logistics and increasing speed and facilitation of transactions, businesses are finding new opportunities and new ways to operate. Today, payments can be made through opening of financial letters of credit, by email, commitments for foreign exchange can be made over the telephone and the purchase of large quantity of produce and their shipping costs can be charged to credit cards. Despite these new advancements most payment transactions still follow basic rules to reduce risk of loss to the barest minimum. Exporters must therefore offer their customers attractive sale terms supported by competitive payment methods to succeed in the new global market and to win sales against foreign competitors. As getting paid in full and on time is the primary goal for each export sale, an appropriate payment method must be chosen carefully to minimize the payment risk while also accommodating the needs of the buyer to get his goods at the cheapest possible rates.

Keywords: Export, Regulations., import, international trade payments

Measuring Consumer Satisfaction with Consumer Protection Agencies: Insights from Complainants to CPA Offices in Anambra State (Published)

This paper examines the level of satisfaction attained by complainants to three different consumer protection agencies in Anambra State, Nigeria. To achieve this purpose, the paper verified proposition that establishes relationship between three components of performance evaluation namely accomplishment of objectives, carrying out duties, procedural obstacles, and consumer satisfaction with consumer protection agencies. Secondly, the paper examined the dimension that influences consumer satisfaction most. A total of 43 out of 92 complainants were surveyed using a 5-point likert type structured questionnaire. Factor analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The results show that overall consumer satisfaction is derived from the objectives accomplished, roles played and procedural obstacles removed by consumer protection agencies. Interestingly, the roles played by these agencies proved to be the dimension that influences consumer satisfaction most. Overall, the paper recommends that the agencies should among other things, liaise with market associations, the media, consumer groups, sister agencies and other relevant stakeholders to achieve the desired consumer satisfaction.

Keywords: Complainants, Consumer Protection Agency, Consumer Satisfaction, Procedural Objectives, Regulations.