An Applied Study on the Impact of the Spatial Characteristics in the Mechanisms of Development Theory and Application (Published)
The developmental process basically relies on the criteria of the various types of places disparate levels, that differ regarding their elemental compositions (human and material resources such as economic or social activities or urban), The process can not be achieved via adoption of a methodology or a definite developmental policy for each place, however it varies according to the contents of the characteristics that can be differentiated easily. The spatial differentiation does not have identical possibilities with some of their resources to development and growth on contrary to others that lack the ability to secure even for the required urgent demands. Based on that concept, the development mechanism has been increasingly utilized gradually in several developmental schemes. The Region, containg ( human capacity, investments, equipment, facilities, factories, buildings, and the land quality, etc.) is classified as fixed capital, that has a direct influence in attracting both the new and the moving capitals , The region reveals a spatial capital that has the ability to detect the level and the importance of the new investments with no interference to the individuals as well as the community Thus, the spatial organization has been conducted as a long-progressive mechanism,Most of the main facilities should show high levels of durability for a long time that may exceeds many decades (like dams and roads and houses and buildings, ports, airports, and other regional and local infrastructures) that don not have any rapid change and play a major role in facing and disrupting the changing outpack.whatever its inner dynamic speed and highly contribute in making the coordination of development and the economic- social changes hardly obtained despite the importance of the projects and investments. The main goal of this study is to obtain a relatively stable balance between the theoretical side and the practical application of development in addition to promoting the necessary mechanisms to establish a highly stable several spatial developments having different levels and characteristics. In this study, we expressed the theoretical side in the identification of the most reliable mechanisms for spatial development and to be applied for each space. It has been concluded that the development plans for regions within their different planning levels should be done by an appropriate decision by the decision-makers in the various levels and away from the centre in the decision.
The fundamental concern of this paper is that the process of naming in the short writings from Bulawayo, the ‘ City of Kings’ that includes short stories and poems encodes the ideological envision of Bulawayo as the second largest city in Zimbabwe. The last hundred years’ social history of Bulawayo has been sculpted alongside the broader Zimbabwean national history, by particular circumstances of colonial conquest occupation; of colonial capitalism, with its lopsided economy, a system of circulatory labour migration; and of policy controversies and resistance regarding the control of space: physical, social, political, psychological, and historical. This paper presents that these factors are typical of most cities in Southern Africa. What distinguishes Bulawayo an urban centre is not only its distinct socio-historical experience with white settler governments and social change but also its experience with the Zimbabwe African National Union- Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) government in the post-independence period, which has been characterised by politics of exclusion and attempts to obliterate the experiences of the Ndebele ethnic group in the national cultural symbols. Antroponyms, geographical names, names based on history and brand names, used by authors in short writings from Bulawayo, have a telling effect as they capture the cultural heritage and identity of the City of Bulawayo. The paper draws its examples from an understanding that the postcolonial period, within which Zimbabwe as a country celebrated its independence in 1980, has witnessed a massive drive towards renaming of streets, buildings, places, schools, and other social amenities in order to recapture the identity of Bulawayo and represent its peculiarity to the other cities in Zimbabwe and the whole world in general. Also of note has been the overriding need to preserve the exploits of the liberation war icons from Matabeleland. The continued redefinition of the history of Bulawayo, particularly in the post-2000 period characterised by extensive closure of companies and de-industrialisation, has been a major concern as the short writings have shown an attempt to restore the glamour of Bulawayo and the subaltern representation that has characterised the City as a marginalised entity in comparison to other cities such as Harare. In the final analysis, this paper engages with both the theoretical and literary discourses of regionification, nationhood and representation as forms of identity creation. In this light, the paper uses the socio-historical approach to premise its arguments.
BIOMASS STOCKS IN GHANAIAN COCOA ECOSYSTEMS: THE EFFECTS OF REGION, MANAGEMENT AND STAND AGE OF COCOA TREES (Published)
Determination of biomass produced in cocoa ecosystems is an important step towards quantifying the carbon sequestration potential of cocoa production systems. This study provides data on the biomass of cocoa systems being influenced by management, cocoa stand ages and region. Eight cocoa farms were sampled on the basis of three variables: region (Eastern, Western region), shade management (shaded, unshaded) and stand age (<15, >15 years). Allometric equations (R2 > 0.94) were developed to estimate the biomass of live cocoa trees, while the biomass of non-cocoa trees was estimated using an existing equation by FAO. Generally, biomass stocks were higher in the Eastern than Western region, shaded than unshaded, and in stands >15 years than those <15 years. The total cocoa ecosystem biomass range was, 48.1 ± 6.5 to 101.6 ± 12.6 Mg/ha. The high biomass estimates reveals a potential of system to restore appreciable biomass losses resulting from deforestation and forest degradation in Ghana.
The purpose of this study is to report an “index” that can be used as a measure of the standard of living of Ghanaians. To accomplish this objective, secondary data on prices of some selected commodities compiled by the Price Statistics section of the Ghana Statistical Service (G.S.S.) was used to conduct the study. The data covers the period from 2008 to 2013 and it was collected by month and for each Region (nine in all). The data was analyzed using Principal Component Analysis, a multivariate data analysis tool. At the end of the analysis, nine (9) indices were reported, one for each Region. These indices allowed for comparative study of the cost of living for the six years for all the Regions. The cost of living for instance, was highest in Eastern Region and Lowest in Ashanti Region for the period 2008; for 2009, it was highest in Eastern Region and lowest in Central Region; for 2010, it was highest in Volta Region and lowest in the Ashanti Region; for 2011, it was highest in Central Region and lowest in Ashanti Region; for 2012, it was highest in Central Region and lowest in Ashanti Region and lastly, for 2013, it was highest in Central Region and lowest in Ashanti Region