An investigative study into the causes and effects of ethno-religious conflicts on women and children in Wukari and Ibi Local Government Areas of Taraba State, Nigeria, 1991 – 2020. (Published)
Conflict is a major problem in any given society and it is often inevitable. Since the re-introduction of democracy in Nigeria in 1999, Nigeria has become a permanent flashpoint of violent conflicts. These conflicts are political, ethnic, or religious in nature, and the consequences are devastating. Taraba State has not been an exception since its creation in 1991, witnessing incessant communal clashes across ethnic and religious lines. These ethno-religious conflicts have attendant debilitating consequences on life and property. The most disturbing aspect is their effects on women and children who are naturally the weaker proportion of any human population. The main thrust of this paper is therefore to isolate the effects of such conflicts on women and children for intense assessment. Thus, in order to do this, the article explores the ethno-religious conflicts in Southern Taraba State of Nigeria, particularly in Wukari and Ibi Local Government Areas. Adopting a multi-disciplinary approach, the article reveals that ethno-religious conflicts in the area of study have severe effects on women and children, causing not only deaths of husbands, children, siblings and loved ones, but destruction of their homes, amenities, social contracts, trusts and so on. The conflicts have also caused severe sufferings on the high number of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), who are mostly women and children. However, the article suggests the need for restoration and sustenance of peace, not only in Wukari and Ibi LGAs, but Southern Taraba, the State and Nigeria at large, through some immediate and long term solutions.
Towards A More Cohesive Society: An Evaluation of Organizational Roles in Alleviating Social Disagreement in Urban (Non-Camp) Areas in Jordan (Published)
The purpose of this article is to evaluate the service delivery provided by international non-governmental and local organizations in the North of Jordan in terms of how these services have changed from the onset of the Syrian refugee crisis until the time of writing. Specifically, it will illustrate how services have changed as a result of development needs related to sustainability – for example, with refugees seeking livelihood and employability opportunities more than regulatory aid (as was the case during the immediate onset of the crisis).
Boko Haram Insurgency: Perceived Stress, Type of Stressors and Coping Techniques amongst Internally Displaced Persons at the Selected Camps in Nigeria Federal Capital Territory Abuja (Published)
Nigerian has had a long and unfortunate history of communal conflicts and ethno-religious violence, the recent of which is the escalation of Boko Haram activities and attacks in 2013. Many people were maimed, killed and rendered homeless leading to looking for succor in the camps. The research adopted cross-sectional descriptive design, multistage sampling technique was used in selecting the camps and samples having used Taro Yamane sample size determination formula. Three hundred and eighty seven (387) respondents were selected out of which only three hundred and fifty six (356) returned their administered questionnaire. Five (5) research questions were answered and five (5) null hpothesses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The instruments for the study were generated from three standardized inventory which are stress inventory, family systems stressor-strength inventory and life event inventory. The face validity and reliability of instruments were determined. Percentages, means scores and chi-square were used to analyze. The results on the demographic characteristics of respondents showed that 153 (43%) were males while 203 (57%) were female; there mean age was 31.3. 62.6% were Christians and 55.3 were marred 40.7% were employed while only 10.2% were not educated. All respondents showed various degrees of stress ranging from mild to severe. The highest psychosocial stressor was financial strain and accommodation away from home while the health related stressor was sleeping difficulties. More than half of respondents (56.2%) adopted emotion focused coping while 43.8% adopted problems focused coping. Religion was found to be significantly associated with the level of stress. Gender was significantly associated with the coping styles, It was concluded that youth radicalization should be addressed. The health of the people in the camps should be given a priority by establishing health centers in the various camps and should be managed by qualified health personnel.
the world is endowed with many conflicts generating a large number of refugees, who flee the unsafe and insecurity places looking for a refuge in a very safe where they can at least enjoy their rights, so, in order to make refugees feel not abandoned ,states at the international level have set in place international instruments relating to the status of the refugees: the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocols ratified by 134 States respectively establishing a certain number of provisions for the wellbeing of refugees away from their country of origin, the way they should be treated being out of their habitual residence, that is why based on these international legal instruments we could say that refugees are matters of international law, to the extent they derive from one of the accepted trio of international law sources, treaties ,customs or general principles of law .so international refugee law ,which governs refugee protection as a branch of international law has been and still in the center of debates among scholars trying to find out Good solutions for the Protection of the refugees, then at least in law, temporary protection is already the universal norm. The intention here is to highlight the very position of international law concerning temporary protection of the refugees, and some challenges that states have been facing during the protection of the refugees, and some states behaviors during repatriation which breach the international law related to the refugees, temporary protection is a valuable norm in that it codifies a commitment to ensuring the safety and dignity of refugees until they are able to return to their own states.