Tag Archives: Reforms

Electoral Reforms: A Necessity for Free and Fair Elections in Nigeria (Published)

The research work was based on Electoral Reforms: A necessity for free and fair elections in Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study was made up of 14 communities in Aguata Local Government Area of Anambra State. Using purposive sampling technique, three hundred respondents were sampled for the study. The instrument for data collection is the questionnaire which has sixteen (16) items designed to elicit information on electoral reforms; a necessity for free and fair elections in Nigeria. The instrument was validated by experts in public administration and political science. The mean statistics was used to analyze the data collected. The findings of the study showed that ethnic/tribal loyalty, political violence, politics of god-fatherism, external and internal security threats among others are the challenges militating against the conduct of free and fair elections in Nigeria.The paper also discovered that electronic voting, electronic registration, administrative and financial autonomy of INEC, the use of digital security system among others are the types of electoral reforms  that need to be put in place for conduct of free and fair elections.The paper concluded that electoral reforms will no doubt curb the irregularities in the conduct of elections in Nigeria. Relevant recommendations and suggestions for further studies were made.


Keywords: Election, Reforms, electoral, fair, free

The Public Procurement Reforms in Nigeria: Implementation and Challenges (Published)

The paper presents as analyzed insight to the public procurement reforms in Nigeria. The public procurement as one the major functions of government in Nigeria is playing a significant roles toward infrastructural development in Nigeria. Reforming in the public procurement sector was necessary to regulate the entire procurement process. The set up of the due process policy in 2011, Public Procurement Act 2007 his revealed a lot as to the unprofessional nature in the public process in Nigeria. The paper proffer sound public procurement practices as a panacea to the reform and implementation in Nigeria. It revealed that weak public procurement system and practices characterized by corruption and lack of accountability, transparency, competition and fairness. Data were sourced basically from secondary source. The study identified the factors that undermine integrity in the public process.

Keywords: Implementation, Public Procurement, Reforms, Transparency

Implementation of civil service reforms in Southeast Nigeria: A Review of Service Compact with all Nigerians (SERVICOM) (Published)

The paper assesses the Implementation of civil service reforms in Southeast Nigeria using the 2005 Service Compact with all Nigerians (SERVICOM) as focus. A cross-sectional survey method wherein structured questionnaire was used to collect data was adopted. From a total population of 2,758, a calculated sample of 400 respondents was adopted using Guilford and Flruchter (1973). With the aid of strategic model of Human Resource Management [SHRM] theory, percentage, and chi-square (χ2) tools, the data generated was analysed. The results reveal that the Civil Service Commissions have not sufficiently established the structural requirements 0f SERVICOM, failed to substantially establish SERVICOM procedures and principles, and failed to apply customer problem and satisfaction survey mechanisms to assess its services. Therefore, this paper recommends a time-tagged ultimatum to the Civil Service Commissions to implement all the SERVICOM requirements and establish its procedures and principles. A special unit/department should also be created with the sole oversight function of managing reforms in the civil service.


Keywords: Civil service, Reforms, Service delivery, Servicom, Southeast Nigeria

Reforms and Regulations in Chinese Banks – Developments and Recommendations for Improved Supervision (Published)

It is a well-known fact that the P.R.C. has been undergoing tremendous economic growth and commercial development. This has impacts not only on the Chinese economy but also on the world economy. This development is not possible without the participation on the nation’s banks. Therefore, in this paper, I first introduce the banking system in China. Then, I explore the developments in reforms and regulations within the Banks in China.  I do so through analyzing 3 key areas of reforms: legal reforms, reforms in corporate governance, and structural reforms. Then, I discuss current trends in banking and finally give my recommendations for increased enforcement and increased competitive of China’s banks.


Keywords: Chinese banks, Reforms, Regulations., developments, improved supervision

The Necessity of Reforms within the Arbitration System under the ICSID Convention: Myth or Reality? (Published)

The present paper analyses the existing arbitration system under the ICSID Convention and explores what advantages and deficiencies the said system consists of. On the grounds of an objective appraisal of the positive and negative sides of the above-mentioned arbitration system, which are contained in the available literature, relevant to the topic, and selected arbitral practice, the proposed work explores how realistic the necessity of reforms of the said system is. Furthermore, based on the found results, the paper discusses the question whether the arbitration system under the ICSID Convention has to be only reformed or replaced as a whole. It argues that the system of rules, regulating the arbitration proceedings under the mentioned convention, has many deficiencies, but this in no way means that it has to disappear.

Keywords: Arbitration System, ICSID Convention, International Investment Law., Reforms

Deficit Factors In the Implementation of Educational Policies and Reforms in Bayelsa State, Nigeria (Published)

This paper focuses on deficit factors in the implementation of educational policies and curriculum reforms in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. It is reasoned that the education sector in Bayelsa State has undergone certain reforms guided by public policies at all levels in recent years. However, much as these policies are actions by public officials, there is a significant absence of corresponding results in productivity and performance index. This perhaps may be as a result of the deficits occasioned by exclusion of the policy holders (teachers and students) who are critical to the implementation and reform process that are expected to drive positive educational outcomes. This paper takes an analytical view on the merits of the educational policies and reforms from 2012 till date viz-a-viz teachers’( personnel), exclusion factors, wastages and corruption that have attended these policies and reforms among others. The conclusion is that, these educational policies and reforms in the state do not have a buy-in of the critical stake- holders with resultant effects of aparthy, absence of commitment, indifference attitude and stagnation in performance. The paper recommends among others that, there must be deliberate engagement of the critical stakeholders on the types of educational policies and reforms that would ultimately benefit the state without any form of exclusion elements in its planning and implementation.

Keywords: Curriculum, Deficit Factors, Educational, Implementation, Reforms, policies


Teacher Education Programme (TEP) is a critical component of education in the society. It determines the rate and level of development in any society. This is because the programme focuses on preparation and production of school teachers whose main role is to transform a society with relevant competencies for development. However, due to the dynamic nature of education and society, Teacher Education Programme experiences emerging issues in education. Today in Kenya, and indeed in the whole world, the concerns in education are access to education, quality in education and equity in education. These are current aspirations by all in education but somehow elusive to realise. However, when proper reforms and innovations in Teacher Education Programme are undertaken, it is possible to develop and manage these important developments in education. This paper explores and discusses how reforms and innovations in Teacher Education Programme in Kenya can facilitate the achievement of access, quality and equity in education.

Keywords: Access, Equity Emerging Issues., Facilitator, Innovations, Quality, Reforms, Teacher Education


The aim of this paper is to evaluate the status and impact of reforms in governance which has been taken by various governments in Bangladesh since its independence. In doing so, the paper highlights on two reform packages New Public Management (NPM) of OECD member countries and Good Governance (GG) of donor agencies and its impact on Bangladeshi governance. Bangladesh was a colony of British and Pakistan over two centuries. As a result, at the initial stage of independence; the inherited administrative structure failed to manage the postcolonial economy and expectation of citizens of independent Bangladesh, which hinders to implement most of the reform efforts. Civil-military elitism dominated the bureaucracy that caused the lessening of accountability of the administration; as a result, corruption, inefficiency and ineffectiveness of administration appear to exemplify Bangladeshi governance. The learning lessons for public administration is lack of appropriate political leadership, unrealistic and ambitious reform initiatives, incapacity of government, chaotic political culture, absence of permanent reform institution, and lack of strong political will are responsible for futile to implement any reform initiative. Apart from these, some important elements of New Public Management (NPM) and Good Governance (GG) has been bespoke by recent past governments in governance process through policy initiatives to make the administration more accountable and citizen centric which is a very good sign of good governance in Bangladesh. Therefore, the impact of reform strategies of western world (NPM) and donor agencies (GG) influenced the third world countries like Bangladesh which ultimately transforming the literature of Public Administration to Public Management.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Bureaucracy, Governance, NPM, Public Administration, Reforms


This article is focussed on the role of post-colonial bureaucracy in a former princely state Khairpur (Pakistan). It is argued that the bureaucracy treated people in a similar way the colonial bureaucracy dealt with people of British India. This paper also argues that the post-colonial bureaucracy has played largely a political role since the inception of Pakistan in 1947. During the One-Unit Scheme (1955-1970) it became a tool to monopolise power, dominate people and control the resources in a similar way the colonial bureaucracy did it in British India. Thus, the post-colonial bureaucracy failed to appreciate the formation of new public space and the emergence of rural change as an outcome of technological change in agriculture.

Keywords: Civil Bureaucracy, Colonial Rule, Ethnicity, Khairpur, Pakistan, Politicisation, Reforms, Sindh, social change

Teacher Education and Development in Nigeria: An Analysis of Reforms, Challenges and Prospects, 1859-1976 (Review Completed - Accepted)

Although teacher education, both pre-and in-service, programs are offered in Nigeria by different teacher education institutions (as provided in the National Policy on Education), and varying degrees of success recorded, various problems still confront the program with far reaching consequences in Nigeria’s educational system. This paper analyses the historical contexts of the teacher education reforms and development in Nigeria with emphasis on the roles of the Christian missions, the colonial administration and that of the Nigerian government after independence. It examines key recommendations of two commissions (Phelps Stokes and Ashby) and their implications to the reform and development of teacher education in Nigeria both during colonial era and after independence. The paper further discusses the influence of these and other reforms in shaping teacher education in Nigeria, the challenges still facing it, and finally suggests solutions to them

Keywords: Development, Education, Nigeria, Reforms, Teacher