Tag Archives: Reformation

An Exploration of the 2019 General Elections in Nigeria: A Review of the Legal Framework (Published)

Elections in Nigeria, particularly from 1999 after the armed forces hand over to a democratically elected government, the political authority have continued to be the foremost system of accomplishing justifiable ruling. Nigerian electoral system has been modeled after American democratic system. However, whether this electoral replica has improved democratic system in Nigeria and Africa as a whole is controversial. It must be clearly stated that ballot snatching, vote buying, distribution of food items for the purposes of winning elections always occur and the 2019 general elections is not an exception. Hence, the main focus of this article is to analyze the synopsis of elections in Nigeria and review the legal framework. From this point of view, a resonance electoral progression is intended to accomplish four essential objectives which are accountable and responsible leadership, openness, communal fairness and a passionately partaking electorate. The western world from where Nigeria copied its electoral system has significantly perfected the procedures desirable for their own environment to accomplish the aforementioned objectives while Nigeria is still battling to achieve the aforementioned goals as evidenced from numerous election Petitions that trails every election. The methodology adopted is doctrinal and the secondary research method involving the use of published scholarly books, journals, internet materials, daily newspapers, magazines and encyclopedia. At this juncture, the research recommended among other things that the electoral sanity can be accomplished through developing fundamental apparatus such as the tenet of law, parliamentary sovereignty and headship that reverence public views.

Keywords: Elections, Life, Reformation, ballot boxes, electoral law, snatch

The Prison Rehabilitation Programmes and Their Effects on Inmates in Benin City Prisons, Nigeria (Published)

Not only does the prison help to keep offenders from the society, it ensures the path to their reformation by improving on their potentials and subsequent change unto better social functioning. This study therefore, assesses the effects of rehabilitation programmes on prison inmates in Benin City. The descriptive survey design is adopted for this study. The data for this study was collected using the structured questionnaire with a four point Likert type scale consisting of 24 items. The population of this study consists of all inmates, males and females, both awaiting trial and convicted in Benin-Sapele road and Oko maximum security prisons in Benin City, Edo State. A sample size of 140 inmates was selected using the non-purposive stratified random sampling method, selecting 70 inmates from each of the prisons. The data collected are subjected to descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation. Findings reveal that the rehabilitation programmes in Benin City Prisons are social intervention services with highest mean value of 2.92 (70%), skills acquisition programmes account for 2.76 (69%); recreational activities account for 2.66 (66.5%) and educational services account for 2.51 (62.8%). It was also found that these rehabilitation programmes are worthwhile, as they influenced inmates’ behaviours and inventiveness at 2.69 (67.3).

Keywords: Inmates, Prison, Reformation, rehabilitation programmes, social intervention

Gender Vulnerability in Farooqi’s Novel, The Story of A Widow (Published)

This paper will investigate the subtle and sensitive questioning of Women’s condition in Pakistan in Farooqi’s novel, The Story of a Widow. Farooqi’s title is misleading and leads one to think that this book too will portray the subjugated position of women in a patriarchal society but on closer investigation it is seen that Farooqi points towards the hindering and cowardly mindset of women in giving and supporting independence to their own kind. The portrait of the dead husband symbolizes the patriarchal presence. It is important to see that the judgmental attitude of the man is perceived by the wife even when he is no more. This is indicative of how powerfully the society is entrenched in the myth that man is wiser and more capable than the woman and therefore must remain in the driving seat. Despite the complete physical absence of Akbar Ali, Mona’s deceased husband, he continues to figure prominently in her thoughts. What is worth appreciating is the resilience of Mona with which she continues to defy and rise above the looks of rebuke and chastisement that Akbar Ali’s portrait continues to impart. After widowhood, Mona gains money as well as the liberty to make her own decisions yet she is, throughout the novel, cowed down by her sister and her daughters, relations that one would otherwise expect to be supportive and understanding. Through the struggle of Mona, Farooqi highlights the importance of self-growth and self –autonomy which can only be obtained by making ones own decisions, shouldering the burden of error, living through agony and finally coming out not triumphant but stronger and wiser i.e like the men.

Keywords: Gender, Reformation, Self-growth, Vulnerability, liberal, sensitivity

Luther’s Theological Grounds for the Reformation (Published)

By presenting Maritain’s harsh criticism of Luther, this article attempts to clarify Luther’s theological grounds for his assault on the Church. Essentially, the Church believed that man could be saved by a combination of faith and works, despite his sin and that the Church was the divine instrument of God. Luther believed in the irremediable sinfulness of man and the world, including the Church .Only faith and God’s grace could save man. Once Luther understood Paul in this way, the Church became sin itself, as much in need of God’s grace as the most depraved man. The violence spawned by the Reformation cannot be understood without an appreciation of Luther’s radical and profound denial of the worth of the Church and all other manifestations of the World.

Keywords: Erikson, Faith, Luther, Maritain, Reformation, Salvation, Sin, Works