Curtailing Illegal Mining Operation in Nigeria (Published)
Nigeria as a nation is blessed with relevant resources of solid mineral that have the capacity to lure investors and business investments to enhance growth economically in the nation. These resources go from Copper, Columbite, Iron, Tin, Gold, Diamond, and so on.Unfortunately, this resource gifts is being underplayed by continuous unlawful mineral mining by people including nationals of other countries, believed to be financed by illegal investors. The Nigerian government may have lost billions of naira in years, owing to unlawful and unjust activities of operators in her mineral sector. Unlawful and unlicensed mineral mining started getting obvious immediately after Nigeria got independence in 1960. The federal government primarily own mining rights but it releases licenses for exploration work, mineral mining and its sales. Where there is no adequate policy, unlawful mineral mining continues unchecked federal government may lose royalties and revenues accruable to it. This paper presents the loopholes and the ways to curtail the activities of illegal mining of minerals in Nigeria.
Field Experience of Agricultural Communication Methods and Attitudes toward the New Trends in Extension in Syria (Published)
The role of agricultural extension has always been a hot topic and under debate for all agricultural specialists, simply because of its vital role in implementing the agricultural policies and rural development, because it is the linkage between the rural community and the organizations involved in rural development and agricultural sector in both farming and non-farming perspectives.
This research is divided to two basic sections; each is divided to two sub-categories as follows:
- The first part is dedicated to communication methods
- The second part is dedicated to new trends in global economy in terms of its influence on agriculture and rural development.
The main findings of this research are: Extension staff lacks to sufficient training qualitatively and quantitatively with social and economic constraints, which makes a reform of the current system is a must to overcome insufficiencies in different areas.
The idea of “secularism” is still rejected within the Arab cognitive structure at the level of intellectual, social and political construction. So far, Arab secularists have failed to find popular acceptance for secularism within the Arab cultural- religious structure and socio political sphere. As a result, traditional religious discourse and values still dominate minds!! The purpose of this study is to discuss, analyze and explain why secularism has not become the culture and political ideology of the Arab peoples and governments. The researcher assumes that the reasons are due to: the neglect of the cultural factor by the Arab secularists, the marriage of Arab nationalism and religion, the emergence of political Islam’s movements, and the nature of Islamic religion that rejects reform. Therefore, the researcher recommends that, there is a pressing need for reproducing Arabs prevailing traditional culture by promoting, a civil culture that privatize religion and separates it from politics and state affairs
Re-Evaluation Process, Due Legal Process and Integrity of the Justice System (Albanian Case) (Published)
Albania has entered into the process of the justice system reform, for the dismissal of judges and prosecutors, unsuitable for the function they are exercising. According to the Constitution, re-evaluation for all judges and prosecutors will be carried out on the basis of the principles of due process and respecting the fundamental rights of the re-evaluation subjects. This process will be carried out by two transitional re-evaluation bodies, established by the Constitution, which will give decisions and will examine the appeal against the disciplinary measures that can be appealed as well to the ECtHR by the assessees. This article aims to provide an analysis of the situation of the justice system in Albania and to present the constitutional and legal framework for the re-evaluation process of judges and prosecutors. Subsequently, the paper attempts to summarize the standards required by the ECtHR for cases of dismissal against the assessees. Finally, the paper concludes that, in order for the Albanian state not to be punished in the future, the newly established institutions for the re-evaluation of the justice system subjects should be familiar with the standards of the ECtHR for a due legal process. Furthermore, they should approach their duty in such a way as to avoid possible convention violations during this disciplinary process.
This study focused primarily on oil and gas sector law reform and its implications for economic development in Nigeria. The objective is to review the reform in the oil and gas sector law since the adoption of democracy in 1999 and what implications it portends for economic development. The study adopted the political economy method to x-ray the issues that are germane to the study. Findings revealed that a consensus has not been reached on the proposed Petroleum Industry Bill as there are points and counterpoints for the passage of the Bill into law. Also, the enactment of the Nigerian Content Act is impacting positively on economic development. It is therefore recommended that political will be geared towards seeing the bill through and that the Nigerian Content Development and Monitoring Board be strengthened to carry out her oversight functions.
Bangladesh Railway sector requires huge reforms in every knock and corners of the sector. Presently, corruption, nepotism, politicisation, poor client service, mismanagement, lack of efficient and skilled employee are the main scenario of the Bangladesh railway system. To enhance the efficiency of the services huge reform in structure and administration of the service is required. This can be done by horizontal and vertical decentralisation. In addition, outsourcing and merit based recruitment, better incentives and result based budgeting for each sector will promote the efficient service of railways. However, corrupted management, trade and labour union and political parties may create resistance and delay the reform project implementation. The proposed reform may improve the management and structure of railway and ensure efficient service for the country
At this moment, good governance, qualified public service are the concepts that required for good local governance implementation. So, at Central Tapanuli Regency – North Sumatera (Indonesia) for increasing institutional capacity of Local Government Working Unit from 2009 up to 2011 had been implemented 5 institutional empowering system which occured by SCBD (Sustainable Capacity Building for Decentralization) Project. Yet, on its implementation, all system got a less responsive actions from local goverment leaders, so project’s result less successfully.This research used qualitative approach with using Alberti and Bertucci theory which explains that innovation and reform on public sector can well succeeded incessanty determined by effective leadership factor. Thereby, on occasion of public service increasing towards good local governance, policies which decided by leaders should be the ones that support innovation and reform implementation in bureaucracy.