Covid-19 Pandemic Blessing or Affliction: Reflection on the Qur’ānic Imperative Acts in Their Pragmatic Perspective (Published)
The recent Coronavirus disease Covid-19 is the illness caused by a novel coronavirus and now called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; formerly called 2019-nCoV). The main focus of the present study is reflection on the Qur’ānic imperative acts in their pragmatic perspective. This global pandemic encompassed the whole world swiftly hence the world’s natural reaction to this epidemic is to guess and explore the root causes of this infectious disease. Different people have different opinions according to their religious teachings, experience, observation, background knowledge, social, and cultural perspectives. None can give a final word about its reasons as all such epidemics are Allah’s ‘Hikmah’ (wisdom) and only Allah Subhanahu wata’ala (SWT) knows His own intentions in such catastrophe and vast disaster. They may be interpreted as punishment of our evil deeds and at the same time realization and a reminder to return to the teachings of the Supreme Being and ultimate reward. Moreover, the suffering that reminds us of Allah (God) is better for our soul than His Blessings that result in His disobedience and thanklessness due to our love and attachment to this ephemeral world ignoring Allah Almighty’s guidance. The Holy Qur’ān and the Bible make it clear implicitly and explicitly that the disbelievers are generally punished and at the same time believers are tested. The disease of Hazrat Ayub (Job), a just man, is the best example (Al-Qur’ān 21:83). God allows natural disasters to happen because, in His infinite Wisdom, He knows that they can serve His purpose of bringing souls to eternal success. Out of evil Allah brings good.
It has been claimed that reflective talk can provide more opportunities for engaging learners in language learning (Lin and Mackay, 2005; authour2). Nevertheless, the topic of effective teaching practices used for infusing reflection into Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) classroom has been overlooked in the literature. This study examines the extent to which EFL teachers’ practices can engage learners into reflection. The study adapted two thinking skills tasks: reading image and diamond ranking tasks. The data of this study includes 10 hours of classroom interaction in a speaking class, with participants consisting of freshmen university students studying at a Saudi University and their British teacher. Using Conversation Analysis (CA) methodology, the study highlights some of the teacher practices that increased or hindered reflection. Also, the teacher’s effective questioning practices have led to the emergence of four types of reflection: reflection on task outcome, reflection on reflection, reflection on one’s personal experience and reflection on personal preferences. Therefore, this study suggests a guiding framework for language teachers that demonstrates the 3 dimensions of reflections in relation to interactional space: task lay out, task outcomes and task analogy.
Beyond Imitation: The Relationship between Literature and Social Reality as Implied in Georg Lukács’s Reflection Theory (Published)
Reflection is not a new concept in literary criticism. However, this concept reached its dialectic perfection at the hand of the Marxist philosopher Georg Lukács (1885-1971). Believing that Man is the focal point in every literary content, Lukács conceives Realism as the basis of all literary genres due to its significant role in solving Man’s problems of alienation and the self- spilt caused by Capitalism, and it is, therefore, the best representation of his Reflection Theory. Reflection for Lukács is neither spontaneous nor photographic, but deliberate and conscious. In this process, the writer plays the role of the mediator between literature and the society. A great writer has, thus, to portray his characters and their struggle for self-realization objectively without imposing his political orientation. Through his typical characters and situations, the writer brings the reality in front of his readers’ eyes so as to enable them to confront their troubles and think of change, and this is “intellectual and moral work” of the realist writer in Lukács’s perspective.