Tag Archives: Reference

Reference Service Delivery and Users’ Satisfaction in Federal University Libraries in South-South, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined reference service delivery and users’ satisfaction in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria. One objective, one research question and one hypothesis guided the study. Data for the study were obtained through questionnaire captioned ISDUSQ administered on 1,760 respondents which represented 10% of the entire population. The questionnaire was content and face validated. Pearson Product Moment Coefficient was adopted as the analytical tool for the study. The null hypothesis was rejected and the alternate accepted. The findings revealed that there exist a significant relationship between reference services delivery and users’ satisfaction in Federal University Libraries in South-South Nigeria. The findings further revealed that users were satisfied with the reference services. From the findings of the study it was concluded that satisfaction with reference service depends on its delivery and adequate delivery of information service enhances satisfaction. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended among others that more effort and finances should be made by the parent institutions of these academic libraries in maintaining or superseding the current delivery of reference service in their libraries as this is what users’ desire in their libraries.

Keywords: Reference, Satisfaction, Users, services delivery


Chinua Achebe’s literary texts have no doubt, provided interacting confluences of opinions and comments from both African and non-African critics. Not only from the tributary of literary criticism, scholars from other fields and persuasions, language, sociology, anthropology, philosophy and so on have also enjoyed the fertility of the texts of this writer who was adjudged the greatest prose writer of African extraction. Perhaps, however, no other aspect of Achebe’s writing skill has received greater attention more than his narrative skill, his telling techniques, especially his masterful blend of Igbo and English rhetoric strategies. This paper further examines the language techniques of Achebe in one of his novels, Arrow of God. It examines Achebe’s exploitation of reference in the creation of suspense in the novel. Suspense is a popular literary technique, usually realised as an inter-episodic linking device. But this paper examines it from a different pattern of linking strategy and in this manner uses it to characterise Achebe’s literary idiolect. The theoretical framework adopted in the study is Discourse Analysis, a linguistic theory that examines how the various parts of a text are cohesively united as a whole. In applying this theory in the study, it examines how Achebe’s unique reference patterns help in reading the novel as a text

Keywords: Achebe, Arrow of God, Reference, Suspense, Technique

The Socio-Political turbulence with references to Anita Desai’s Voices in the City (Review Completed - Accepted)

The great social novel Voices in the City depicts how the corrosive effects of city life on an Indian family caught in the cross current of changing social values and norms make them to suffer a lot. Disillusionment and frustration are their lot in the city. Nirode doesn’t voluntarily leave his city and come to another city which is unfamiliar to him. Nirode is employed as an “anonymous, shabby clerk on a newspaper, calling himself a journalist” while his real job is cutting out “long strips of newspaper and paste and file them, occasionally venturing out to verify a dull fat in some airless office room. “ He is not happy with his lot in the city and desperately wants to escape. While if the people, particularly his mother and the society had not affected Nirode, he would not have left the city. If the family of Monisha had not behaved rudely, she could have led a peaceful life. If the mother had been good, both of them, when suffering in life, would have gone to the mother. From the mother, who is poor and seeks money through ill-manner, Anita Desai portrays how people, especially poor, are forced to lose their moral values because of money which is indispensible to lead the life. Thus the society makes a lot of sudden changes

Keywords: Anita Desai’s Voices, Reference, Socio-Political turbulence