Tag Archives: Recycling

The Characteristics of Retail Wastes in the City of Yenagoa, Nigeria (Published)

Wastes management in Yenagoa and indeed many Nigerian cities has suffered tremendous setbacks in the last few decades.  Literatures, reports and personal observation confirms that there is a total breakdown of law and order in relation to wastes and environmental management practices.  Many businesses in Yenagoa and across Nigeria have capitalized on the lack of proper monitoring and enforcement of wastes and environmental laws to adopt practices that promotes profit making over environmental quality.  In Yenagoa where the retail sector is on a huge scale – there are more people involved in retailing than any other sector or employment.  The extent of wastes produced by the sector has not been properly investigated neither are there information on the management practices adopted by retailers.The study employed a mixed method approach using closed and open-ended questionnaires in collecting data.  In all about 900 questionnaires were collected and analysed for the study while a representative of the Ministry of Environment was interviewed. The use of both open and closed questions in a single survey is a major characteristic of a mixed study.  Knowing that no adequate waste management plan can be drawn until the current practice, sources, components and volume of waste in a location have been studied and well understood.  Hence, the use of qualitative methods in this research is essential as it helps to understand and gather data on areas of interest.  A multi stage cluster sampling technique was employed due to the unavailability of an up-to-date sampling frame in the area.  The findings from the study shows that wastes materials produced by retailers in Yenagoa are mainly; wastes paper, tins, cans, plastics, cardboard, furniture, wood products and possibly WEEE.  However, plastics and cardboard materials were the dominant wastes materials produced by the retail sector.  The study therefore conclude that considering the large spread of retailing in Yenagoa, there is a need to establish a wastes processing facility in the city with heavy emphasis on recycling.

Keywords: Cardboard, Plastics, Recycling, Wastes, Yenagoa

Recycling Costs:A Research in the Waste Paper Industry (Published)

Since the day it is invented till today, paper is a part of human life in various ways and it is gaining even more popularity as years go by. As the consumption of paper has been increasing, the problem of sourcing raw material is emerging. As a result, natural resources are being exploited. Recycling of paper has become vital since the demand for paper has increased and natural resources are being exploited. In this study, paper industry is analyzed in regard to recycling and the process of producing paper in a recycling factory and proportional weighted costs of recycling are presented. Thus it is intended to assist managers of waste paper recycling factories to make strategic plans and also those who will start up new factories. Study concludes that weight of waste paper as a raw material within the costs of factory is 43%.

Keywords: Costs of Waste Paper, Recycling, Waste Paper


The increase in the use of motor vehicles has resulted to generation of large quantity of used lubricating engine oil which is being disposed improperly, thereby leading to environmental pollution. This work therefore investigated solvent extraction process for recycling of used lubricating engine oil. Three solvents: 1-butanol, 2-propanol and mixtures of 1-butanol-ethanol were considered. Each solvent was used to segregate impurities in the form of sludge at different extraction factors considered.The performances of the solvents were investigated by determination of Percent Sludge Removal and Percent Oil Loss. The investigation revealed that 1-butanol produced the best extraction performance.

Keywords: Contact time, Extraction, Oil loss, Recycling, Sludge