The study investigated work incentives and job commitment among university lecturers in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The study examined the extent to which lecturers are committed to their job in the university as well as the level of work incentives available to lecturers in university. The study investigated the relationship between each of the work incentives components (remuneration, recognition and job security) and job commitment of university lecturers. The study adopted a descriptive research design of the survey type. The population for the study consisted of 1,185 lecturers in the three universities in Ekiti State as the time of this study. The sample for the study consisted of 300 respondents selected from the 3 universities using multistage sampling procedure which involved simple and purposive sampling techniques. The instrument used for this study was self-designed questionnaire titled ‘Work Incentives and Lecturers Job Commitment Questionnaire (WILJCQ)’. The instrument was validated by experts in Educational Management and Tests and Measurement. Test-retest method of reliability was used to ascertain the reliability of the instrument. The data collected from the administration of the instruments were correlated using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and a reliability co-efficient of 0.76 was obtained for WILJCQ which was considered high enough to be reliable for the study. All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that the level of work incentives available to lecturers was moderate. The study also showed the extent to which lecturers are committed to their job in the universities. The study further revealed that there was significant relationship between work incentives and lecturers’ job commitment in universities in Ekiti State. Work incentives are highly related to lecturers’ job commitment. It was found that there was significant positive relationship between remuneration and lecturers’ job commitment. There was no significant relationship between recognition and lecturers’ job commitment. The study also revealed a positive significant relationship between job security and lecturers’ job commitment. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that prompt payment of salaries and allowances as well as all other allowances to lecturers should be paid as and when due, as this goes a long way to improve lecturers’ job commitment. It is also recommended that management of universities should put in place favourable conditions of service that will guarantee job security of academic staff towards enhancing their job commitment.
Influence of Recognition, Rewards, Remuneration, Compensation and Benefits on the Lecturers’ Job Satisfaction in Kenyan Universities (Published)
To have in place quality staff that can make meaningful contribution, certain supportive incentives and measures are necessary. This paper examines the influence of such supportive incentives on the lecturers’ job satisfaction in Kenyan Universities. A study that targeted 2,773 members of university management and lecturers in the chartered public and private universities within Rift Valley Region of Kenya was undertaken. The study used a sample of 605 participants and employed convergent parallel mixed methods design. Purposive sampling was also used to select information-rich cases. Questionnaires, interview and document analysis guides were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, independent-samples t-test, One-way ANOVA and regression coefficients, with the use of the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20 were used. The study identified job satisfaction elements like fair promotions, assignment of additional responsibility as a result of outstanding work, among others. However, potential sources of job dissatisfaction included: lack of competitive rates; lack of adequacy of pay commensurate to work done; dissatisfaction with salary, among others. The author recommends that universities should work towards raising the level of job satisfaction through supportive incentives.
Indian English has been universally accepted as a unique style of discourse with its own nuances giving expression to Indian Multiculturalism. In the works of writers in India or those abroad not only the new Indian writers in the west, expatriates, second and third generation writers, but also the classical authors like A. K. |Ramanujan, Nissim Ezekiel, Mulk Raj Anand, R. K. Narayan, and Bhabani Bhattacharya are being interpreted in the new old critical mode as well the current critical styles of multiculturalism. The concept of Multiculturalism recognizes the ethnic diversity within a society and has enlightened worthwhile contributions to society made by people from diverse backgrounds .Multiculturalism as a social theory brings together different themes such as cultural diversity, recognition, mutual concern, and peaceful co-existence of many cultures and sub-cultures.
This paper aims at providing an analysis of the Albanian legislation and jurisprudence on the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments and arbitral awards in Albania. Such an analysis is especially relevant in the current situation of the development of Albania and in this crucial moment of its European integration process and the implementation of the Stabilization and Association Agreement with the European Union.The analysis is composed of three parts, starting with the definition of the foreign judgments and arbitral awards as enforceable orders. Also, apart from the Albanian legislation, the analysis includes the legislation of other European countries, as well as the impact in its domestic legislation of different international treaties on the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments and arbitral awards.The paper is enriched with the analysis of the Albanian jurisprudence, among others by including the unifying judgments of the Joint Benches of the Supreme Court, because of their special leading role for the courts in Albania. Further, the analysis continues with the detailed procedure of the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments and arbitral awards in Albania, ending with the conclusions.
Innovative Approach to Teaching Arabic Writing by Using a Handwriting Recognition System (Published)
This article presents the development of an Arabic online handwriting recognition system based on neural networks approach. It offers solutions for most of the difficulties linked to Arabic writing recognition. Secondly, our proposed system will be integrated in a computer assisted languagelearning tool to create educational activities and to generate adequate feedback. This environment uses tools from natural language processing, mainly our handwriting recognition system, to create various educational activities. The developed system will be used as a tool for learning and teaching Arabic as a foreign language
EFFECTS OF TRAINING ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE: A SURVEY OF HEALTH WORKERS IN SIAYA COUNTY, KENYA (Published)
Low job satisfaction and low motivation does not only reduce performance of the health systems but also constitute a serious push factor for migration of health workers, both from rural areas to the cities, and to other countries. It is therefore an important goal of human resources management in the health sector to strengthen the performance of health workers, from heads of health facilities to auxiliary staff. The general objective of this study was to assess the effect of the training on the performance of staff in the public health institutions in Kenya. The target population is the doctors, clinical officers, nurses and subordinate staff serving in public health facilities within Siaya County. The data was collected through administration of questionnaires. The questionnaires included both open ended and closed questions. The researcher took a sample size of 20% giving a sample size of 56 respondents, employing a stratified sampling technique. The researcher distributed the questionnaires and collected them after two weeks which was sufficient for the respondents to have filled them adequately and duly. Then the data was then entered by coding into a computer program, SPSS to facilitate analysis. From our study it shows there is a strong positive relationship between training of employees and performance.
The aim of the research was to determine the relationship between rewards and work motivation of Public Sector College teachers of Pakistan. A Questionnaire was used to collect information from 200 respondents. It was composed of 37 items that measured rewards and overall motivation of academic staff. Rewards were measured using five dimensions namely: pay, working conditions, job security, work itself and recognition. Data analysis was done using correlations and regression techniques. Work itself and recognition had statistically strong positive and significant association with motivation of teachers. However weaker relationship was found with working conditions and pay. This study conducted upon college/university teachers can also be conducted upon school teachers and other sector organizations. Dimensions of rewards, other than the five, used in this study can also be taken to determine their association with motivation as well as impact of demographics on motivation.