Creating an institutional framework on a global scale to understand balance-of-power strategies is the crux of foreign policy today with United States superpower exceptionalism. ‘Altercating’ defence, diplomacy and development encapsulate the United States foreign policy in relation to national interests globally. Role theory applied in comparing the United States and Chinese grand strategies as case studies. The United States superpower statecraft’s clarity help superimposed any form of countervailing alliances globally; while China’s sociological pragmatist role currently could change based on ‘Power Transition Theory’ for hegemony power. Beijing is pursuing a grand strategy that combines both ‘internal balancing’ and external ‘soft balancing’, encapsulated as ‘warfare ecosystem construct’ as countervailing alliances for balance-of-power strategies with development of ‘Economic Corridors’ in East Asia ; and the United States ‘Globalization Agenda’ both executed as ‘mechanisms of power’ date back to their ‘hegemonic histories’ with adaptive construct for national interests.
Us- China’s Disagreement over South China Sea Issues: A Race for Control? An Analysis through Realism’s Lens (Published)
This paper seeks to analyze the main reasons of the disagreement over the South China Sea between the USA and one of the claimants, China. We would go about it using the theory of Realism as a basis of our analysis. This theory claims that nations, as main actors of the international system, interact with each other on the basis of their own interests – military security, economic prosperity etc. In a world where there is no authority over the nations, the latter have to protect themselves on their own means. The disputes in South China Sea are fuelled by the value maritime space and the oceanic resources values. Actually, the nation that controls the sea, can hold any of the littoral countries to ransom. The dependence of China on imported oil and due to the fact that most of its oil imports are shipped through the South China Sea, pushes it to protect its sea lanes, secure its access to closer oceanic resources and protect its territory from potential attacks that could be launched from South China Sea. Being a transit lane for both regional and international trades, many countries are also concerned about the conflicts. One of them is the United States. The United States’ concern is strongly influenced by its will to maintain its own influence in the area.
Beyond Imitation: The Relationship between Literature and Social Reality as Implied in Georg Lukács’s Reflection Theory (Published)
Reflection is not a new concept in literary criticism. However, this concept reached its dialectic perfection at the hand of the Marxist philosopher Georg Lukács (1885-1971). Believing that Man is the focal point in every literary content, Lukács conceives Realism as the basis of all literary genres due to its significant role in solving Man’s problems of alienation and the self- spilt caused by Capitalism, and it is, therefore, the best representation of his Reflection Theory. Reflection for Lukács is neither spontaneous nor photographic, but deliberate and conscious. In this process, the writer plays the role of the mediator between literature and the society. A great writer has, thus, to portray his characters and their struggle for self-realization objectively without imposing his political orientation. Through his typical characters and situations, the writer brings the reality in front of his readers’ eyes so as to enable them to confront their troubles and think of change, and this is “intellectual and moral work” of the realist writer in Lukács’s perspective.
Politics and economics share an intimate relationship. To separate either in analysis is unfair, as it dismisses the interdependency between both schools of thought. Thus, in issues pertaining to the Political Economy, there is a fusion between politics and economics to obtain the most thorough and holistic understanding of both spheres. Political economy is concerned with the allocation of scarce resources in a world of infinite wants and needs. In order to allocate these resources, politics are used within a state to provide for the people. Of the different analytic frameworks there are two dominant perspectives: Liberalism and Realism. Liberalism can be attributed to a political doctrine that takes protecting and enhancing the freedom of the individual and their economic activities to be paramount in nation-states, while Realism is based on certain assumptions or premises that nation-states are the dominant actors within the political economy and the proper units of analysis. Other units of analysis are subordinated to the nation-state and therefore superfluous to integrate into evaluation. This paper is directed towards liberalism and realism paradigm; a matrix very useful in comprehending the behavior of the nation-state and in describing, explaining, and predicting political economy. The paper recommends that liberalism should operate under real-world conditions, reflecting state interest and aggrandizement, and such advancement should result in peace instead of the expected dose of conflict.