Research on the Relationship between Internal Control and R&D Investment (Based On the Empirical Study of Gem Listed Companies) (Published)
Based on the data of GEM listed companies from 2010 to 2015, this paper analyzes the relationship between the internal control and R&D investment of enterprise. The results show that, the internal control quality of the enterprise is positively correlated with the enterprise’s R&D investment intensity; in addition, we also find that the internal control quality of non-state-owned enterprises has a more significant effect on the enterprise’ R&D investment intensity than that of state-owned enterprises; the internal control of high-tech enterprises plays a more significant role in promoting the R&D investment intensity than that of non-high-tech enterprises. On the one hand, this paper has certain theoretical meaning on enriching the academic research of the economic consequences of internal control and of the influential factors of R&D investment. On the other hand, it provides some ways for enterprises to improve R&D investment from the internal mechanism aspect.
In Indonesia, the role of R & D (Research and Development) at the level of bureaucracy has not been considered of strategic importance. Evidently a lot of policies that are not based on deep research and comprehensive. As a result, many failed policies implemented are likely to cause new problems even more complex. The lack of involvement of R & D in the formulation of Local Regulation resulted in many problems and eventually canceled. Based on the database Research Agency Ministry of the Interior, to date only 157 the Provincial / District / City which has 548 R & D institutions of the Provincial / District / City in Indonesia (or 28.6%). And of that number only 31.8% (50 prov / districts / cities) in the form of Board and 10.2% (16 prov / districts / cities) in the form of Office, and 57.96% (91 prov / district / city) the other is a field (equivalent echelon 3) even in Bandung City is the Sub Sector (equivalent echelon 4). This indicates that the commitment of the Regional Leadership in developing R & D in the region, there still exists the view that R & D was considered not yet able to contribute significantly to the formulation of policy planning and progress of the region. This paper is to review how the institutional form of research and development of Bandung City Government should be formed in order to be actively involved in policy formulation and development planning area in terms of (a) Commitments Regional Head; (b) Institutional: (c) Resources R & D; (d) Cooperation R & D
Innovations play a key role in changing behavior, purchasing habits and improving living standard of customers. In this era of stiff competition, innovation is the only toil through which business firms do not only fight a war of survival but also obtain competitive advantage. This is the reason that business firms particularly high-tech companies spend billions of dollars every years on research and development (R&D) and development of new products and services keeping in view the changing needs and demand of the customers. The objective of this study is to investigate how innovation affects the behavior of customers and which factors motivate the customers to adapt innovation. Main research question of this study is to measure the impact of innovation on consumer behavior with special reference to electronic industry. We have taken Pak Electron Company Ltd, which is a market leader in Pakistan and manufacturing different electronic products and marketing them since 1956. In order to measure the behavior of consumer towards innovation products we have taken a sample of 200 male & female customers between the ages of 18-65 years. The data which was primary in nature, was collected through field survey and a questionnaire was structured for this purpose. Face to face interviews were conducted. A standard likert scale was used to analyze data. This scale is commonly used for analysis in qualitative studies. S-Curve model was used to measure the innovations made or introduced by Pak Electronics Ltd in collaboration with other leading electronic companies of the world. Our study evidence prove that the effect of innovations are significant on the behavior of customers and 75% of respondents endorsed that innovative electronic products attracted and have brought positive change in their behavior and living standards.
SHIFTING GLOBAL ECONOMIC PARADIGM (Published)
The 21st century was started with the dawn of a new economic puzzle of China’s fast economic growth. It has surprised the economists. The Chinese constant upward growth has shifted economic paradigm and the axis of growth appear to have been shifted from the western hemisphere to the eastern hemisphere. Some economists term it a 21st century miracle. The author has determined to test this miracle through empirical framework. Main research question of this study to explore the answer of the question why China is recording consistent rapid economic growth? Is this growth in the same way as other developed countries experienced in the past or is it a new phenomenon-a shift in global economic paradigm.The objective of this empirical analysis is to investigate into the causes of fast economic growth of China in the context whether this growth pattern is a normal phenomenon or an indicator of shifting global economic paradigm.Our study is spread over a period starting from 1980 to 2011 because of the introduction of economic reforms and massive economic growth. We have collected data from different sources such as China Bureau of National Statistics, IMF, World Bank and relevant research Journals and books. The selected variables for this research paper are: labour productivity, investment, exports, Research and Development expenses, capital stock, open door policy, real exchange rate and US GDP. We used ordinary least square (OLS) model to measure change in the selected variables. Five tests were used to test the stability of the model. The Econometric results show that international trade and investment in capital stock and R&D expenses by Chinese Government are the major determinants, which are responsible for enhancing labour productivity and output in the long-run, Similarly, real exchange rate appears as an important determinant to explain change in output in the long-run
Firm level innovation brings about new ideas, new products development, pioneering of new technologies and processes as well as the promotion of entrepreneurship. It is the major driver of economic growth and competitiveness in the global market economy. This study assessed the status of innovation among small, medium and large firms in Ghana. From the up-dated list of the Association of Ghana Industries (AGI) a sample of 500 manufacturing and service sector firms employing more than 10 people were purposively selected across the country. The primary data were collected through questionnaire, and then analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The individual entrepreneur or owner of the firm was the unit of analysis. The result showed that innovation in Ghana is more prevalent in the small firms compared to medium and large firms. The study noted that most of the employees with university degrees were employed by large multinational firms and medium firms that are part of large groups. It also emerged that more than half (59%) of the processed innovations were developed within the firms themselves and 21% of the innovative firms collaborated with other firms and institutions for their innovative activities. The paper argues that drawing lessons from the experience of the Asian Tigers, firm level innovation could aspire Ghana achieve higher economic growth for favourable competition in the global economy.