Chronic Hyperglycemia and Biochemical Alterations Induced Hepatic-Renal Dysfunction in Rats Administered Ethylacetate Fraction of Plumbago Zeylanica, Linn (Published)
Chronic hyperglycemia is an independent predictor of death in myocardial infarctions and nephropathy and it is a major cause of organ damage. Previous studies have shown that administration of Plumbago zeylanica extract elevated significantly the glucose concentration of the organism even though there have been many claims of the ameliorative effects of the plant. Hence, we investigated the likely dysfunctions of liver and kidney that may results from the induced hyperglycemia. Twenty rats (150-190 g) were grouped into four of five rats per group. Group 1 (control) was administered 2% Tween-20 and groups 2, 3 and 4 were administered 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b. wt. doses of P. zeylanica ethylacetate (PZE) fraction respectively. Administration of PZE for 28 days significantly increased the plasma glucose level suggesting hyperglycemia. The activities of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly increased thereby suggesting hepatic dysfunction and the kidney function monitored by plasma protein, creatinine and urea levels was impaired by PZE suggesting renal dysfunction. However, there was no significant change in the level of lipid profile. PZE elicited hyperglycemic effect, hepatic and renal dysfunctions in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, the inducement of hyperglycemia by PZE may have resulted into organ damage noticed in the liver and kidney. Therefore, PZE should be used as herbal medicine with caution.
Phytoconstituents and Antidiabetic Activity of Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae) in Steptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats (Published)
Vernonia amygdalina (VAM) is a medicinal plant that has been use traditionally in the management of diseases especially diabetes. Phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis were carried out while 25 male albino wistar rats (137-223 g) were used to evaluate the andiabetic activity. The animals were randomly divided into five groups (n=5). Group I (control) received normal feed and water, while Groups II, III, IV and V were diabetes induced with single dose of 45 mg/kg b.wt streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally. After three days, group III was treated with metformin (MET) whereas, groups IV and V were treated with 150 and 300 mg/kg b.wt VAM respectively for another seven days. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of most common phytochemicals except anthraquinone and GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 10 phytoconstituents majorly fatty acids and esters, and phytol. The FBG levels of diabetic-induced rats treated with doses of VAM and MET were significantly reduced (p<0.05). There was observed significant (p<0.05) decrease in the levels of plasma aspartate aminotransaminase (AST, γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and non-significant (p>0.05) decrease in alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) in diabetic induced rats compared to control. MET treatment reversed the order in GGT and LDH while VAM doses could only reverse the order in LDH. At high dose, VAM significantly (p<0.05) increased the concentration of plasma total protein (TTP), creatinine (CRE), bilirubin (BIL) whereas, at low dose, VAM significantly (p<0.05) increased the concentration of plasma triglyceride (TRIG) and cholesterol (CHOL) compared to the STZ and control groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that VAM leaf extract possess some phytoconstituents which could be responsible for its antidiabetic activity.
The medicinal properties of curcumin and leonurine obtained from Curcuma longa L. and Leonuris sibiricus has demonstrated low efficiency due to their poor bioavailability and its rapid metabolism in the liver and intestinal wall. In this study, the effect of combining piperine, a known inhibitor of hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation, was evaluated on the bioavailability of curcumin and leonurine in rats. When curcumin was given alone, in the dose 200 mg/kg to rats, moderate serum concentrations were achieved over a period of 4 h. Concomitant administration of piperine 10 mg/kg increased the serum concentration of curcumin for a short period of 1-2 h post drug. Time to maximum was significantly increased (P < 0.02) while elimination half life and clearance significantly decreased (P < 0.02). The leonurine serum concentration also showed similar dissipation pattern with solely administration of leonurine alone demonstrated low accumulation as compared to co-administration with piperine. Result obtained also showed that the co-administration of both curcumin and leonurine with piperine enable to increase the bioavailability of curcumin and leonurine for about 261.11% and 154.81% respectively. In conclusion, this study has proven that the co-administration of piperine enhances the serum concentration, extent of absorption and bioavailability of curcumin and leonurine in rats with no adverse effects.
Protective Effect of Plants Extracts Mixture on Sperm Abnormalities, Testicular and Epididymal Tissues in Diabetic Male Rats (Review Completed - Accepted)
Background: Diabetes has been associated with reproductive impairment in both men and women. About 90% of diabetic patients have disturbances in sexual function, including a decrease in libido, impotence and infertility. Attention has been paid to the search of effective drugs in the field of traditional medicine.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus type 2(T2DM) on the sperm abnormalities, testicular and epididymal tissues of male rats. Also to evaluate the efficiency of the mixture of methanol-watery extracts composed of five medicinal plants (Trigonella faenum-graecum seeds, Nigella sativa seeds, Zingiber officinale rhizomes, Olea europeae leaves and Fraxinus ssp.seeds) in reducing harmful effect of DM on the percentage of sperm abnormalities, testicular and epididymal tissues.
Methods: Twenty-four mature male rats were used in six groups (n=4), the first group kept as a control. The second group received alloxan (120 mg/ kg body weight i.p.) for 3 days to induction of T2DM while the third, fourth, and fifth groups were diabetic rats received the plants extracts mixture orally for 45, 60, 75 days, respectively after induction of T2DM. The sixth group received the plants extracts mixture for 60 days. By the end of the experiment, animals were sacrificed and the testis and epididymis were excised and sperm was collected for morphological abnormalities of the sperm shape. Also histopathological examination of the testes and epididymis were examined.
Results: The sperm shape abnormalities significantly increased (p<0.05) in alloxan – induced diabetic rats compared with normal control group. Histopathological examination showed degenerative changes of both testes and epididymis in diabetic rats which include significant decrease (p<0.05) in both diameter of seminiferous tubules and their germinal epithelium heights and non-significant decrease (p>0.05) in both diameters of cauda epididymal tubules and height of epithelium of cauda epididymal tubules. On the other hand, atrophied seminiferous tubules, atrophied spermatogenic cells and the lumen of semineferous tubules free from sperm was detected. Furthermore, expansion of interstitial space between seminiferous tubules were seen . In contrast , oral administration of the plants extracts mixture to the diabetic rats at three period of study 45, 60, 75 days, respectively statistically decreased (p<0.05) most sperms abnormalities compared with diabetic group and caused non-significant differences compared with control group besides enhancing the histological changes of both testes and epididymis.
Conclusion: DM has negative effect in male testis and epidydimis of alloxan-induced rats and may contribute in reduction of fertility while the plants extracts mixture used in this study can reduce most degerenative changes occurred in testes and epidydimis in diabetic groups treated with the mixture of plants extracts.