Tag Archives: Rainfall

Creation of an Exceptional Natural Phenomenon of Chains of Dunes and Lagoons through a Rare Balance of Five Key Elements in the National Park Lençóis Maranhenses in the Northeast of Brazil: Sand, Rain, Wind, River and Vegetation – An Artistic Approach (Published)

During our travels in the State of Maranhão in the northeast of Brazil, we explored the region of the National Park Lençóis Maranhenses in 2012 and 2013 before crossing the park during 5 days in September 2013 with the aim to produce nature art photography and organize subsequent itinerant exhibition throughout the country and abroad. We could confirm in loco the creation and constant modification of an exceptional natural phenomenon of chains of dunes and lagoons through a rare balance of five key elements in the park: sand, rain, wind, river and vegetation. Questions were raised and answers need to be found. Where is the sand coming from? What are the roles of the tides? How is the wind transforming the dunes? What are the natural lagoons or water ponds that exist in the middle of the dunes? What is the role of the vegetation? The dunes are in constant movement, what is their annual rate of dislocation? Is the balance of the five key elements to recreate the phenomenon threatened at present time or in the future, for instant due to ongoing, negative climate changes? A special approach was taken, as the production of nature photography of the dunes and lagoons in the park allowed us to know and observe the vast park area very closely. For the consecution of the aim of the research, we collected data based on bibliographic research, extents field studies in the area of the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park in 2012 and 2013, while conducting interviews with the habitants of the three communities living in the middle of the park and realizing artistic productions of nature photography and itinerant exhibitions to accompany the process of creation of dunes and lagoons in the park. We concluded that the balance of the five key elements to recreate the phenomenon depends on some fundamental factors such as, for instant, the same direction of the steady winds throughout the year, the elevation of the groundwater level due to rainfall during the month of January until July and the drying out of the water ponds during the month of July to December. We could distinguish the existence of free dunes inside the park and the fixed dunes on the Southern borders of the park and near to the village Atins. An important role plays the vegetation, that are fixing the dunes and delimitating the area of the park as further crowing of dunes is inhibited beyond theses areas due to the fixation of the dunes by vegetation. Furthermore, vegetation can deviate the direction of the winds, which might result in some cases in accumulation of a great amount of sand where vegetation was able to fix itself on the surface of a dune (the so called shadow dunes). In the first six months, due to rainfall, elevated groundwater level causing the creation of lagoons or water ponds, the free dunes in the park are almost not migrating, whereas during the months between July and December, with the drying out of the lagoons, sinking of the groundwater level and the continuing steady winds, the free dunes are migrating and moving in average 20m per year. The change of the landscape is confirmed by members of the three families living in the middle of the park, the Paulos, the Britos and the habitants of Baixa Grande during interviews. In the dry period of the year without rainfall, algae and vegetation can be found on the bottom of the lagoons and serve as food for domestic animals as pigs, horses and sheeps that are walking free inside the park. One scenario in the future is that the crossing of the park might be prohibit by the park administration alleging environmental prejudice to the balance of the park, as well as dust left behind while camping inside the park. Based on our experience, this kind of alternative tourism is not threatening the environment, as, for instant, we did not see any remains, and nothing was left behind by ourselves during the crossing and due to the fact that only few people are entering the park by food.  As the results of our research show, the exceptional natural phenomenon of chains of dunes and lagoons through a rare balance of five key elements in the park: sand, rain, wind, river and vegetation continuous to be intact and is not threatened, even not due to climate changes that occurred in this area. In recent years, it could be observed that, due to a dryer year with less rain occurrence during the month of January to July, the lagoons dried out in the subsequence months very quickly. Some lagoons contain fish. Even drying out (in the case of the not perennial water ponds) in the second half of the year and located in the middle of the park with no other water source visible next to it, the fish reappears in the following rainy season at the beginning of the year. One explanation is the possible ability of the fish to adapt to the situation by digging themselves into the sand into ground water layers where they are able to survive. Future research needs to be carried out to accompany closely the recreation and constant modification of an exceptional natural phenomenon of chains of dunes and lagoons through a rare balance of the five key elements needed.   

Keywords: Balance, Brazil, Groundwater, Lençóis Maranhenses, Rainfall, Vegetation, Wind, dunes, key elements, lagoons, river

Challenges of Ripening Of Sugarcane at Tendaho, Metahara and Wonji-Shoa Sugar Estates (Published)

Ripening in sugarcane refers to an increase in sugar content on a fresh weight basis before commercial harvest. In Ethiopian Sugar Industry ripening of cane especially at the early and late periods of crushing shows a decline against the mid periods of crushing.  Thus, an effort was made to show the trend of ripening and associated losses by considering the problem of ripening at Tendaho, Metahara and Wonji-Shoa Sugar Estates. To have concrete information, cane plantation harvest result, meteorological and experimental data were used. Furthermore, reviews about ripening, research and developments of chemical ripeners, conditions and considerations for good response, environmental and economic issues related to ripeners were made. From the trend analysis and experimental data it is concluded that the conventional ripening method by withholding water has draw back in exploiting the maximum attainable recovery potential at Metahara, Wonji-Shoa and Tendaho Sugar Factories. At Wonji-Shoa, the loss in sucrose percent cane from the peak value attained in the crushing months ranged from 0.02 to 0.95 %. Similarly, at Metahara, the deviation in sucrose percent cane from the peak in the crushing moths ranged from 0.32 to 1.10 %. In general, maximum loss in sucrose percent cane was observed in the early and late periods of crushing. Temperature and residual moisture plays an important role in the ripening of cane and the challenge also seems to occur at Finchaa and newly emerging sugar factories located in the lowlands of the country

Keywords: Rainfall, Temperature, chemical ripeners, dry-off period, ripening, sucrose, sucrose loss.

Trend Analysis of Rainfall Pattern in Enugu State, Nigeria. (Published)

Rainfall distribution pattern has been a major concern to Climatologists, Penologists, Agriculturist hydrologist and even to the ordinary man in the street. Rainfall is a critical index of climatological investigation and has major impacts on flora and fauna, as well as ecological setting and water resources management of any area.  Following the current moves by the governments to improve on agriculture; the pattern of rainfall is essential for indigenes of Enugu state since they are predominantly farmers. As the moves to encourage agriculture to ensure food security continues to gain ground and acceptability, information on rainfall probabilities is vital for the design of water supply and supplemental irrigation schemes and the evaluation of alternative cropping and of soil water management plans. This study has examined the pattern of rainfall in the state and observed some irregularities in the pattern. For government’s efforts towards improving agriculture to be fruitful, a more advanced technology of ensuring constant rain source is very vital.

Keywords: Agriculture, Enugu State, Food Security, Rainfall, Trend

Design of a Renewable Energy Output Prediction System for 1000mw Solar-Wind Hybrid Power Plant (Published)

Problems associated with non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels make it necessary to move to cleaner renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. But the wind and sun are both intermittent sources of energy therefore accurate forecasts of wind and solar power are necessary to ensure the safety, stability and economy of utilizing these resources in large scale power generation. In this study, five meteorological parameters namely Temperature, Rainfall, Dew Point, Relative Humidity and Cloud Cover were collected for the year 2012 and used to predict wind and solar power output in Jos, Nigeria. The study used prediction algorithms such as Regression techniques and Artificial Neural Networks to predict the output of a 1000mW Solar-Wind Hybrid Power Plant over a period of one year. Individual prediction techniques were compared and Isotonic Regression was found to have the highest accuracy with errors of 40.5% in predicting solar power generation and 35.4% in predicting wind power generation. The relatively high levels of error are attributed to several limitations of the research work.

Keywords: Cloud Cover, Dew Point, Output Prediction, Power, Rainfall, Relative Humidity, Renewable Energy, Solar, Temperature, Weather, Wind

Climate Change and Perceived Climate Hazards: A Trend Analysis in Southeast Nigeria (Published)

Current global climatic trends show a deviation from historic trends and this has necessitated this study. The paper analysed climate change trend and the perceived climatic hazards in Southeast Nigeria. Proportionate sampling technique was used to select a sample of 260 food crop farmers for the study and 232 questionnaires were returned. Secondary time series data on mean annual climate variables for a period of thirty years (1984-2014) were collected from National Root Crop Research Institute Umudike and crop output data from National Bureau of statistics. Data were analysed using descriptive statistical tools like polygon/histograms and line graphs. Also, the extent of damage by climate hazards as perceived by respondents was obtained using likert scale. The rainfall volume variation showed a very unstable pattern with high volatility over years with slightly increasing trend in the study area. Result shows that temperature is significant at 1% level of significance while rainfall volume, rainfall days, relative humidity and sunshine duration were insignificant. Rain day was characterized by unsteady rise and fall trend pattern. The trend also indicated an unsteady change in the movements of the relative humidity and sunshine levels. The result for the occurrence of climate hazards as perceived by farmers show 86.2 %, 64.68%, 63.79%, 77.82% of the respondents perceived to a great extent the impact of flooding, sea level rise, longer period of dry spell and wind storm respectively. Based on the finding, it is concluded that the damaging and devastating effects of climate change is in the increase. It is recommended therefore that adequate adaptive measures and mitigations be put in place to cushion the effect of climate change.

Keywords: Climate Change, Climate Hazards, Rainfall, Relative Humidity, Sunshine Duration, Temperature

Trend Analysis of Rainfall Pattern in Enugu State, Nigeria (Published)

Rainfall distribution pattern has been a major concern to Climatologists, Penologists, Agriculturist hydrologist and even to the ordinary man in the street. Rainfall is a critical index of climatological investigation and has major impacts on flora and fauna, as well as ecological setting and water resources management of any area. Following the current moves by the governments to improve on agriculture; the pattern of rainfall is essential for indigenes of Enugu state since they are predominantly farmers. As the moves to encourage agriculture to ensure food security continues to gain ground and acceptability, information on rainfall probabilities is vital for the design of water supply and supplemental irrigation schemes and the evaluation of alternative cropping and of soil water management plans. This study has examined the pattern of rainfall in the state and observed some irregularities in the pattern. For government’s efforts towards improving agriculture to be fruitful, a more advanced technology of ensuring constant rain source is very vital.

Keywords: Agriculture, Enugu State, Food Security, Rainfall, Trend

THE EFFECT OF RAINFALL, TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON SALINE IN THE SOUTHERN AREA OF BANGLADESH (Published)

A study was taken to measure the effect of rainfall, temperature and humidity on salinity area as well as to project the future trend of increasing saline area in the southern area of Bangladesh. Patuakhali district was selected as study area for the study. Secondary data such as temperature, saline area, relative humidity, rainfall, etc. were used in the experiment. The results showed that minimum temperature and relative humidity has the positive effect whereas rainfall and maximum temperature has the negative effect on decreasing the soil salinity. The study projects that the saline area would be increasing trend in future. Therefore mitigation measures could be taken to prevent the salinity in the coastal area.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Humidity, Rainfall, Saline, Temperature