The present study builds a taxonomy of State Machine Replication (SMR) and Transactional Replication (TR) models based on three algorithmic descriptors: the existence or the absence of a leader, synchronicity and the type of fault tolerance. As per FLP theorem, termination cannot be guaranteed in deterministic algorithms in the presence of even a single faulty process. However, the taxonomy shows that this impossibility has been overcome through weak asynchrony assumptions to ensure termination or using randomized methods to ensure termination deterministically. Increased resource usage and low throughput are major problems associated with current Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) systems. Cross Fault Tolerance (XFT) is a new approach which solves practical BFT cases with minimal resources. The article further concludes with a short review of selected open source practical frameworks that implement SMR like Hyperledger, Apache Kafka, Zookeeper, Zab, etcd, zetcd and piChain.
Using Raft Strategy to Improve EFL Learners’ Writing Competency in Paragraph Writing Course at the University Of Hail-KSA (Published)
Teaching writing in English for University students needs to be improved from time to time through creative ways. To develop writing skills, learners should follow the process of learning of how to get ideas, how to put these ideas together, how to organize them on paper, and finally how to refine them into a good cohesive piece of writing. This research aimed to find out how the implementation of RAFT (Role, Audience, Format and Topic) strategy enhanced learners’ writing competency in: argumentative, descriptive, comparison – contrast, and cause – effect types of paragraphs. T-test analysis results showed that there were significant differences in students’ writing competency between the two groups in favor of the experimental. In spite of the fact that the effect of RAFT strategy was not very high, it was recommended that English teachers who have similar problems in the classroom to apply RAFT strategy in their writing class