Evaluation of Natural Radioactivity Content in Groundwater Sources in Communities along Tano Basin, Ghana for Radiological Risk Assessment (Published)
The radionuclide concentrations in all water samples were measured using gamma spectroscopy method. The purpose of this study was to evaluate background radionuclides in groundwater sources in the communities, which border the Tano Basin for the radiological risk assessment. The average values of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K obtained are in the range of 0.14±0.01 to 1.38±0.22 Bq/L, 0.18±0.01 to 1.41±0.18 Bq/L and 0.46±0.02 to 5.92±0.10 Bq/L respectively. The committed effective dose and excess lifetime cancer risk were calculated for four age brackets. The average total annual effective dose for adults that take groundwater ranged from 1.20E-04 ± 8.70E-06 to 9.50E-04 ± 1.52E-04 mSv/y and that for teenagers, children and babies ranged from 9.04E-04 ± 6.07E-05 to 7.04E-03 ± 1.10E-03 mSv/y, 2.74E-04 ± 1.13E-05 to 2.06E-03 ± 2.13E-04 mSv/y and 1.17E-03 ± 7.21E-05 to 8.84E-03 ± 1.35E-03 mSv/y respectively. The excess lifetime cancer risk in adults ranged from 4.21E-04 ± 3.05E-05 to 3.32E-03 ± 5.32E-04. That for teenagers, children and babies ranged from 7.68E-04 ± 5.16E-05 to 5.98E-03 ± 9.37E-04, 1.65E-04 ± 6.79E-06 to 1.24E-03 ± 1.28E-04 and 5.85E-05 ± 3.61E-06 to 4.42E-04 ± 6.76E-05 respectively. Other parameters of the water samples are in the ranges of pH: 4.4 – 7.2, Temperature/OC: 29.1 – 32.9, Conductivity/μScm-1:51.4 – 420, Salinity: 0.0 – 0.1 and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)/mg/L: 31 – 252.
Evaluation of Natural Radioactivity Levels for Local and Import of Cement in Iraq (Review Completed - Accepted)
Cement samples were collected from Iraq market. Radioactivity was measured using (NaI)Tl detector, specific activity levels due to 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in 11 cement samples. The average activity concentration Bq/Kg in the collected cement samples were found the range from (17.027±4.609) to (95.436±5.565) Bq/Kg with an average value of (40.49391±3.09627) Bq/Kg for226Ra, 232Th specific activities range from (2.303 ±0.319) to (8.8159±0.366) Bq/Kg with an average of (4.79±0.3455) Bq/Kg and 40K specific activity range from (84.135±5.387) to (389.436±8.364) Bq/Kg with an average value of (275.8±5.763) Bq/Kg . The average value of the radium equivalent was found (68.21907) Bg/Kg, while the average value of the absorbed dose in air, external hazard index and internal hazard index were found (32.9866) nGy/h, (0.2937) and (0.184298) respectively. Also in this study compared of results with international recommended values and found to be with in the international level