Social Comparison is an individual’s tendency to evaluate self-competence by comparing competencies and self-opinion with other individual competencies and opinions, in order to achieve a certain superior position. In this study, the preparation of the measurement instrument was based on the distribution of data contributed by 60 active students of the Faculty of Psychology at Atma Jaya Catholic University, Jakarta, as participants. Measuring instruments are arranged based on aspects that are assumed to form Social Comparison, namely perceptions of certain standards, perceptions of comparative opinions and perceptions of competencies Garcia, Tor and Schiff, 2013; Garcia, Tor and Gonzales, 2006). Based on knowledge of test construction, 22 items were arranged. From the results of data analysis with SPSS version 20, there were 15 items that were declared valid, with a validity score greater than 0.3. These 15 items show reliability of 0.819. Thus, the Social Comparison measuring instrument is stated to meet the rules of validity and reliability, and can be used as a measure of behavior.
Nowadays in academic institutions and educational process, the researchers when intended to translate their research question, aims and objectives into a full-scale research project, are likely to be at the stage of deficiency to organize their research. Consequently, not be able to persuade prospective supporters of its value. Its required, therefore, for improving the research quality, to pay close attention to the research design and consolidate to the appropriate methodology. The present research has been concerning with two clear objectives; firstly, enable researchers, irrespective of their discipline, to promote the most appropriate methodology for their research studies; secondly to make them familiar with the art of using different research methodologies and techniques. The present research, therefore, discussed two important methodologies, such as Interview and Questionnaire from the Perspective of CBE Members. It was considered, in this research, why it is important to have an appropriate methodology of research and how to consider and adjust the quality before quantity to meet the requirements of the different research project.
Competitive behavior questionnaire is an instrument that is used to determine how strongly individu competes in achieving certain superior targets. Competitive behavior is a behavior to achieve a superior position with respect to the personal targets to be addressed (Gracia, Tor & Schff, 2013). Theory of competitive behavior is developed from Cognitive Social theory, as a result of individual interaction, with its environment (Bandura, 1986). One form of competitive behavior is survival in studying at the level of undergraduate education. However, this competitive behavior has not been widely studied. Therefore, instrument that can be used as a tool is needed to find out appropriate competitive behavior of individuals. In this study, a competitive behavior questionnaire was prepared based on aspects of the drive to compete, the desire to achieve superior positions and self-representation. In total there are 14 aitems with validity score more than 0.30. The reliability score was 0.81.
Tourism Survey techniques to highlight the hidden tourism attractions in Lebanon is the aim of this work. A questionnaire has been designed in order to get the necessary data and accurate and detailed information about the touristic site or touristic village, tourist facilities and the services capability and manpower. All sources related to tourism sites in Lebanon have been studied. Information has been gathered from field interviews and direct contact with the local people, pictures and drawing detailed maps. We also build a database for each village that includes touristic sites. Our main work is to highlight the hidden touristic areas and benefit and preserve their natural, archaeological and historical resources. A map will be developed for each village. All gathered information and analysed data will be stored in a database and CD/DVD to be presented in tourism organization and travel agencies. Also, all data have been prepared to be published on a website.
This paper examines the issue of Boko Haram insurgence and its implications on socio-political economic in Nigeria. We used survey questionnaire based on economic, social and political activities in the country, data were collected from stakeholders with evidence from newspapers. The findings include the following; the activities of the insurgency have crippled the economic activities which are as results of unemployment, poverty and illiteracy in the Northern-part of Nigeria. This suggests that this may constitutes serious threat to lives and property of Nigerians thereby hindering business activities and discouraging foreign investors. We find that the role of religious leaders encourage the activities of the insurgency, the political elite in the Northern-part of Nigeria also contribute to the insurgency as a result of bad governance. We recommend that Government must be proactive in dealing with security issues, use modern methods of intelligence gathering, adequate training, and motivation among security personnel and encourage the youth in going to school.