Tag Archives: Quality

Survey of the Quality Physical, Chemical and Bacteriological of the Underground Waters of the Continental Terminal of the Township of Abomey-Calavi (Benin) (Published)

Campaigns of withdrawal of the underground waters have been done during the year 2013 to the level of the boring situated in the township of Abomey-Calavi, to control their quality. These withdrawals were the object of analysis according to the techniques of assessment of water quality described by Rodier (1978) and to the recommendations of the world organization of health (WHO). The physical and chemical analysis showed that 98.7% of the studied boring present some concentrations superior to the norms recommended by the WHO (1994) and by Benin (2011). The studied boring present without exception a bacteriological pollution. The very elevated microbial germ presence in water could constitute a sanitary risk importing for the inhabitants who consume the water of these boring.

Keywords: Bacteriological, Boring, Chemical., Physical, Quality, Underground Water

Teacher Professional Development and Quality Universal Basic Education in Lagos State, Nigeria (Published)

The study aimed at investigating the relationship between teachers’ professional development and quality Universal Basic Education. The study area was Lagos State. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Correlation design was used for the study and simple random sampling technique was used to select 500 teachers from the primary and junior secondary schools for the study. Data for the study were collected by the use of a researchers’ developed instrument titled “Teacher Professional Development and Quality Universal Basic Education Questionnaire (TDPQUBEQ)”. The instrument was a 4-point Likert type scale and consisted of 20 items. The reliability coefficient was .85, using Cronbach Alpha reliability method. Pearson product moment correlation statistics was used for data analysis. The findings of the study revealed that teacher participation in induction programme, ICT training and seminars/workshop significantly related to quality Universal Basic Education in Lagos State. Premised on these findings, it was recommended that the government and relevant agencies should intensify effort on the provision for teachers’ professional development through in-service education to enhance sustainable quality universal basic education. The government and relevant agencies should provide more opportunities for UBE teachers to attend ICT training programmes in order to be ICT compliant. This is necessary to enhance their instructional delivery effectiveness.

Keywords: Professional Development, Quality, Teacher, Universal Basic Education


The quality of any research and its findings is connected and /or shaped by the process diligently followed. This suggests an unending link between the methodology (process) and the quality / outcome of a research. This paper explains the imperative of population and sampling and the value it adds to the quality of research and its findings. The paper is an explanatory one that analyses documented views of experts in the field of research and correlate same with the experience of the researcher. Observations and assessment of researches conducted by students of undergraduate studies and most times the graduate students’ revealed research procedural lapses. These lapses are mostly methodological that affect considerably the quality/outcome of their researches. The emphasis hinges on the need to pay required attention to the population and sampling procedure to ensure accurate research findings not speculative outcome.

Keywords: Population, Quality, Sampling, findings

Regulatory Challenges in the Upgrading and Maintenance of Standards in Teachers’ Professionalism in Nigeria (Published)

The compliance with minimum regulatory standards in the practice of teaching is bound to promote a competent, dedicated and productive classroom teacher for character molding and qualitative education. In Nigeria, issues of professionalization of teaching have continued to suffer from setbacks resulting to poor remuneration, low self-esteem and quackery in the teaching profession. This scenario negates the promotion and achievement of functional educational system at all levels. This paper examined the challenges militating against the attainment of minimum regulatory standards in teaching despite its pioneering effort as the mother of all professions. It adopted the exporatory approach to examine the various trend analysis and used the institutional framework design through secondary literature and observation to justapose the structures of teaching with other professional bodies. Based on the challenges,it recommended the institutionalization of a professional body for the upgrading, coordination and enforcement of minimum regulations to benefit members in raising the status of the teaching profession to meet global competiveness.

Keywords: Code, Education, Ethics, Membership, Profession, Quality, Regulation, Standard, Teacher


Assessment of leaf-type and number of leaves used in wrapping on the quality of Ugba (fermented Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth seeds) was studied. Ugba is a delicacy commonly consumed by people of South Eastern states of Nigeria. Raw African oil bean seeds were boiled, dehulled, sliced, reboiled, washed and steeped in cold water for 10h and washed again, drained and wrapped with different leaves [plantain leaves (Musa paradisiaca), cocoyam leaves (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) and Okpopia leaves (Alchornea laxifora Benth leaves)] and fermented for 72h. The samples were wrapped with different number of leaves ranging from 1-5. The sensory evaluation and proximate analysis of the fermented samples were carried out. Statistical analyses of both were determined using Fisher’s Least Significant Difference at P≤0.05 confidence between the samples. The composition of Ugba wrapped in Okpopia leaves (Alchornea laxiflora), cocoyam leaves and plantain leaves had different levels of moisture content (44.3%, 52.83%, 47.04%) respectively. Protein ranged from (6.77% – 8.59%), fibre content ranged from (17% – 39%), carbohydrate content range from (35.23% – 44.57%), fat content ranged from (6.5% – 12%) and ash content ranged from (13% – 33%). There were significant differences (P≤0.05) among all the samples in protein, fibre, carbohydrate, fat and ash contents respectively. The highest protein and carbohydrate, least fat, moisture and ash contents were from samples A (Okpopia leaves wrapped with five layers), suggesting best wrapping material. Organoleptic characteristics of the samples showed that the wrapping materials influenced the sensory attributes and the best wrapping material was shown to be Okpopia leaves with five layers, according to the panelists.

Keywords: Assessment, Quality, Ugba, Wrapping, leaves


Teacher Education Programme (TEP) is a critical component of education in the society. It determines the rate and level of development in any society. This is because the programme focuses on preparation and production of school teachers whose main role is to transform a society with relevant competencies for development. However, due to the dynamic nature of education and society, Teacher Education Programme experiences emerging issues in education. Today in Kenya, and indeed in the whole world, the concerns in education are access to education, quality in education and equity in education. These are current aspirations by all in education but somehow elusive to realise. However, when proper reforms and innovations in Teacher Education Programme are undertaken, it is possible to develop and manage these important developments in education. This paper explores and discusses how reforms and innovations in Teacher Education Programme in Kenya can facilitate the achievement of access, quality and equity in education.

Keywords: Access, Equity Emerging Issues., Facilitator, Innovations, Quality, Reforms, Teacher Education


Keywords: Barriers, Egyptian, Improving, Managing, Quality, instrument


The present study examined the impact of social factors on consumer behavior in evaluative criteria of the purchased home furnishing in Amman (Jordan). In the literature, there are a few previous studies which have explored the topics on consumer behavior and home furniture industry in Jordan. Furthermore, the objective of this study is to investigate of purchasing behavior of home furniture consumers in Jordan. This study then will evaluate the factors that have influences on furniture purchasing decision process. The findings will allow the researcher to be able to recommend to Jordan furniture manufacturers and retailers. Also, questionnaires were distributed and self-administered to 400 respondents. Descriptive analysis, factors analysis, test of reliability, correlation test, and regression analysis were used in this study. The study results demonstrated that there is a positive and significant relationship between reference group, family, price, quality, color, and purchasing decision. In addition, implications of this work and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: Consumer Behavior, Furniture, Price, Quality, Reference Group, family


The objective of this research paper is to assess the role of relationship marketing in winning customers’ loyalty in the mobile Phone industry in Pakistan. De-regularization of the telecommunication sector in Pakistan has created huge competition to capture the maximum market share. For this purpose, industry marketers and planners are exercising various relationship marketing strategies to attract new customers and retain the old ones. To analyze the role of relationship marketing in building customers’ loyalty, the author has selected four independent variables such as service quality, price perception, brand image and value offers while customer’s loyalty is taken as dependent variable. A structured questionnaire containing 24 closed ended questions was developed to collect data from the field. The data was analyzed through Likert- scale. This scale is defined with 5 options of strongly agree on 5 and strongly disagree on 1. In order to check the reliability of the variables, a reliability test was conducted on 20 respondents of different age groups with different occupations. The results of this test showed positive significant relationship among the variables. The results of this study are robust and consistent with previous studies. This study provides in-depth knowledge about mobile users and cellular companies operating in Pakistan can take benefit from it.The finding of this research study is expected to be beneficial for the managers of the mobile operators in their decisions relating to the relationship marketing issues that are connected with the needs of the customers. These needs and interests of the customers, in turn, can increase their revenue and profits in the long-run.

Keywords: Brand, Customer, Loyalty, Marketing, Quality, Relationship, Satisfaction, telecommunications


The study is an evaluation of the quality of education offered by small independent colleges in Zimbabwe. Focus was on (1) the level of compliance of independent colleges to the government requirements on quality education (2) perceptions held by students on the quality of education they experience in the independent colleges and (3) challenges faced by independent colleges in providing quality education. Data was collected from the 320 respondents being students, staff of the independent colleges and representatives from the ministry of education and culture and the Zimbabwe Council for Education (ZIMSEC). The main instruments of the study are questionnaires and interviews. The study found out that Independent colleges are failing to meet governments requirements on quality education and their students have negative perceptions towards the quality of education they are receiving. Lack of funding emerged as the main challenge affecting independent colleges in providing quality education. The study recommends the government to strengthen its monitoring and supervisory efforts in the non-formal education sector. Independent colleges are also urged to seek strategic partnerships with other players locally or internationally to reduce their financial burden.

Keywords: Independent Colleges, Non-formal education, Quality


As for the continued and rapid increasing of Dubai as one of the world most targeted areas for businesses and investments, transportation has become one of the main challenges that face decision makers in Dubai. RTA thus was established to unify responsibilities previously spread between several governmental departments (Dubai Municipality and Police Department). Moreover, RTA adopted decentralization by establishing 8 separate agencies and sectors in order to achieve highest levels of flexibility. The “RTA Service Standards Manual” governs the entire portfolio of existing and news services offered by RTA. The Manual is considered imperative to unify and standardize the varied approaches that are taken today in service development and monitoring

Keywords: Approach, Customer, Decision, Dubai, Guidelines, Improvement, Initiative, Manager, Manual, Owner, Phase, Pilot., Process, Quality, SSM, Service, Standard, Template

Journal Impact Factor to Lecturer Research Evaluation: Married incompatibles in Zimbabwe (Review Completed - Accepted)

The purpose of this study is to clarify the confusion among some academics over the journal impact factor and its’ uses. It was motivated by the observation that, while the impact factor was designed for use by librarians, it is being misused for the assessment of the quality of lectures’ research for tenure and promotion in some universities in Zimbabwe. The study was guided by qualitative research methodologies. Data was collected by documentary analysis of internet materials for the history, purpose, use and abuses of impact factor. The study revealed that, the words, “impact and quality” are not synonyms, hence journal impact factors cannot be used to assess the quality of research. The journal impact factor was initiated by two librarians, Gross and Gross (1927) who needed to identify scientific periodicals they could buy for their college libraries. Garfield (1960) improved its application and the Institute for Scientific Information commercialized it. Impact factor of a journal is a numerical measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in the journal within a period of two years. It is a useful measure of journal visibility within the literature of a particular discipline. It reflects journal influence in that field not research article quality (Baum, 2011). Critics of a journal impact factor point out that the mean is an inappropriate statistic for journal impact factor which is a skewed and not linear distribution. It can be manipulated by journal editors hence unreliable. Today the journal impact factor is being misused for ranking journals, evaluating research articles and lecturers’ research for tenure and promotion. Garfield (1998) denounces the use of impact factor to evaluate the quality of journal articles or researchers who publish in journals with low impact factors. The European Association of Science Editors issued a statement against evaluation of research using impact factor in 2007. The Joint Committee on Quantitative Assessment of Research disapproved it in 2008.  Higher Education Funding Council pointed out that, using the impact factor of journals as a surrogate for the impact of articles published in them is assessing science in a fundamentally unscientific way. Researchers describe the use of journal impact factor to evaluate the quality of research as “foolhardy” (Seglen, 1997), “dubious” (Amin and Mabe, 2000), and “bad scientific practice” (Brembs, Button and Munafo, 2013). Stephen (2012) concluded that, those using journal impact factor to rate the quality of research papers are “statistically illiterate”. This study concluded that, those research assessors calling for journal impact factors to evaluate the quality of the research articles and researchers are marrying incompatible partners by using a wrong tool. This study recommends that use of journal impact factor should be a tool for librarians, confined to its initial purpose of identifying journals with high readership. Those intending to use it for evaluating research should be educated through published research papers clarifying the issue of journal impact factor.  In fact, by using journal impact factor for research quality evaluation in 2014, when Garfield denounced it, 16 years ago in 1998, Zimbabwean academics at university level are using an expired drug.         

Keywords: Impact Factor, Incompatibles, Lecturer Research, Quality


The geometric parameters along with related colour properties of food and agricultural products are important in order to characterize and describe its quality. The application of image processing technique for this purpose can certainly reduce the human drudgery while guaranteeing the quality of produce. In this paper, a new geometric and colour quality parameters estimation methods suggested, to provide automatic and intuitive way of quality inspection of Cashews kernels from an image accurately. The geometric parameters are obtained manually and from proposed algorithm. We have investigated the hardware-oriented, human-oriented, and instrumental colour spaces for measurement of colour parameters of Cashews kernels. It is estimated from our research that the statistical measurements of each Cashews kernel grades, from the proposed methods. Finally the paper concludes by highlighting the necessity of such computer vision system and insight into the methodology that attempts to fix the universal estimation of statistical measurements of geometric and colour parameters of Cashews kernels grade.

Keywords: Cashews Kernels, Computer Vision, Geometric and colour parameters, Quality


The Influence of calcium sources and concentration on the storage performance of strawberry fruit was determined by harvesting the fruits at red stage and treatment with calcium nitrate, calcium gluconate and calcium chloride at 0% (distilled water), 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% calcium solutions by dipping for 30 seconds. The calcium sources, concentration and the interaction of calcium sources and concentration significantly affected the storage performance of strawberry fruit. While all the three sources and concentrations were effective in decreasing the storage associated changes i.e. weight loss, decline in marketable fruits, loss of organoleptic quality, increase in TSS, decline in reducing sugars, total sugars and acidity and increase in Sugar/ Acid ratio in strawberry fruit, thus extended the shelf life, Calcium gluconate and calcium concentration of 1.5% was more effective. Treatment of strawberry fruit with 1.5% calcium from Calcium gluconate source resulted in the highest number of marketable fruit (100%), extended shelf life (10 days) total soluble solid (7.80%) with the minimum weight loss (5.45%). Ascorbic acid content was the highest (35.35 mg/100 g) in fruits treated with the calcium nitrate at 1.0% calcium concentration but was at par with Calcium gluconate. It can be concluded that calcium gluconate at 1.5% concentration is an effective calcium treatment to retain the quality and extend the shelf life of strawberry fruit.

Keywords: Calcium, Concentrations, Fruit, Perishable, Quality, Salts, Sources, Storage, Strawberry

The Impact of Supplies Quality on Universities Performance: A Case Study of Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (Published)

The role of Quality supplies in the performance of universities cannot be under estimated. Quality is the driving force in university performance. However its role is greatly affected by having quality systems in the universities. The research sought to assess the impact of quality of supplies on university performance using four indicators; cost reduction, effectiveness, efficiency and customer satisfaction.

The study utilized a descriptive study using a survey method and targeted the MMUST fraternity. A sample of 25 students and 25 staffs were administered with questionnaires that had both open and closed questions. 23 students (92%) and 19 staffs (82.6%) responded. The study results using the Chi-squire revealed that quality of supplies impact positively to university performance. The research further recommends that universities should ensure quality of its supplies in order to realize good performance.


Keywords: Chi-Square, Performance, Quality, University

The Effect of Brand Name on Customer Loyalty in the Mobile Communication Industry in Ghana (Published)

The mobile communication industry in Ghana cannot be successful without loyal customers. Thus, brand name is very critical factor to help retain customers thereby improving the bottom line of the firm. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which brand name contributes to customer loyalty in mobile telecommunication brands in Ghana. The paper also finds out the factors that influence consumer choice of brand (mobile network) and why subscribers switch from one network to another. The study captured both qualitative and quantitative data. Data collection was conducted through a survey questionnaire comprising open and closed ended questions. To get the sample size for the study, 120 respondents were selected using simple random sampling but 150 were contacted because of data collection limitation such as non response. Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for data analysis. Statistical analysis includes Pearson correlation, logistic regression and descriptive statistics. Pearson correlation and regression were used to analyze the customer reasons for choosing a particular network as well as the relationship between customer association and brand attributes. The study found that, brand name does not really contribute to customer loyalty. Other factors such as the quality, price, availability, and sales promotion also contribute to customer loyalty. The study however revealed that, there are factors such as price, quality, price and quality and brand name that consumers consider when making a purchased decision, however, they mostly associate quality with the name of the mobile network brand purchase. Thus, any mobile network brand purchase is because of the quality but not necessarily the name

Keywords: Brand name, Customer loyalty, Customer retention, Mobile communication, Quality

Quality Assurance of Teachers in the Assessment of Social Studies Curriculum of Secondary Schools in Abeokuta Metropolis in Ogun State, Nigeria (Published)

The study was carried out to ensure the quality assurance of teachers in the assessment of the Social Studies curriculum in Secondary Schools in Abeokuta Metropolis of Ogun State, Nigeria. Two research questions were formulated and answered in this study. Survey research and evaluation designs were involved. The sample for the study was 57. A 20 cluster item questionnaires and 35 multiple choice test items were developed and used to collect data. The data collected were analyzed using percentages, means and performance gap analysis to answer the research question. Conclusively, the importance of assessment of secondary school social studies curriculum can not be over emphasized because it is a well established fact that the status and kind of assessment used in appraising phenomenon for reaching implication not only for students’ achievements, but also for the nature of school procedure in an institutions. Based on the result of the study, it was recommended among other things that, teachers should be sponsored by the government to attend seminars, workshops and conferences to update themselves in order to improve the quality of their teaching skills

Keywords: Assessment, Assurance, Curriculum, Metropolis, Quality

Air Quality Assessment in the Vicinity of Cement Company (Published)

This study investigated effect of cement production activities and seasons on the concentration of air pollutants such as Total Suspended Particle (TSP), Thoracic Particulates viz respairable and inhalable sizes (PM2.5 and PM10) and gaseous pollutants: Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and Hydrogen sulphide (H2S). The cement company is located in Ogun State, Nigeria between latitude 6Вє 54′ N – 6Вє 55′ N and longitude 3Вє 12′ E – 3Вє 12′ E – 3Вє 13′ E; studied between July – December, 2010. Sampling was carried out at Production plant (starting point), Administrative office (400 m), Ewekoro community (500 m), Cement mill (800 m), Ajobiewe community (1000 m) and Agbesi estate (1500 m). The samplers used were Stage gravimetric sampler (for suspended particulate matters), Tetra multi-gas monitor (CH4, CO and H2S), Multi gas meter, Land Duo (CO2, NO and NOx) and BW, Model 0539, gas alert (SO2). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Test of significance of the means was by the Least Significant Difference and Duncan Multiple Range test. Significant concentrations of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx CO and H2S were observed in the vicinity of Cement Company. Higher concentration of PM was observed in the dry season than wet season. Cement production activities release air pollutants. There is need to reduce the rate of emission during cement production to the lowest minimal level by using air trapping devices.

Keywords: Air, Cement, Production, Quality

Service Delivery at Fuel Service Stations: An Evaluation of Consumer Satisfaction in Gaborone, Botswana (Published)

The study sought to evaluate consumer satisfaction with regard to fuelling services in Gaborone, Botswana. The importance of four of the five operations performance objectives (Quality, Speed, Dependability and Flexibility) to the motorists was determined. The performance rating of various fuel service stations (FSSs) on the four operations objectives was determined. The aim was to establish if the FSSs were excelling in those operations objectives considered important by the consumer. Results showed that the order of importance of the four operations performance objectives was: Speed (71.9%), Quality (70.2%), Flexibility (59.6%), and Dependability (56.1%). The most important objective for FSSs to excel in is speed. However, FSSs still need to perform reasonably well in the other objectives as their ratings (all over 50%) indicate that they are also important to the customers. The performance ranking for the FSSs was Quality (93.0%), Dependability (91.2%), Speed (87.7%), and Flexibility (57.9%). The FSSs performed better in the Quality and Dependability objectives yet the Speed objective was the most important to the consumers. Significance testing using the Chi Square Test indicate that the strongest relationship between importance and performance exists for the Flexibility objective (Pearsons correlation-Asymp.Sig = .025) and is weakest for the Speed objective (Pearsons correlation-Asymp.Sig = .105). This indicates that FSSs were not excelling in the objective that is most important to the consumer- Speed. FSSs in Gaborone need to improve service delivery by increasing the speed of serving customers.

Keywords: Dependability, Flexibility, Operation, Performance Objective, Product, Quality, Service, Speed

Economic Analysis of Sunday Market in Srinagar City (Published)

In the present study an attempt has been made to study various characteristics of Sunday market in the summer capital of Jammu And Kashmir State. The main aim was to study the quality and price structure of products sold in the market. Also special emphasis has been given to examine the job satisfaction of vendors and reasons for joining the Sunday market. With the help of interview schedules information has collected from 200 respondents. Our probe revealed that both second hand and good quality products were sold in the Sunday market at cheaper prices than normal prices. Also we found both sellers and buyers were satisfied in the market.

Keywords: Buyers, Market, Price, Products, Quality, Vendors