Tag Archives: Quality Assurance

Total Quality Management (TQM); A Means of Better Work Output in Nigerian Manufacturing Industries (Published)

The study inquiries into the role total quality management plays in facilitate an organization output. It suggests that the management of an organization is determined by TQM and its application is complex and gives an assurance of good products and services. The study revealed that human, material resources and busines processes ensure complete customer satisfaction at every stage, internally and externally. The combination of TQM and effective leadership, results in an organisation doing the right things at the right time. For methodological purpose, the study employed expository and content analytics approach to extrapolate the relationship between TQM and the work output in manufacturing industries. It concludes that total quality management and service delivery in manufacturing industries in Nigeria shares common attributes and would be able to contribute successfully to the achievement of the organization aims.

Keywords: Quality Assurance, Total Quality Management, manufacturing industries, organization output

Internal and External Quality Assurance Practices as Predictors of Institutional Effectiveness of Public Universities in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This study assessed internal and external quality assurance practices as determinants of institutional effectiveness of public universities in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study was intended to address two objectives, from which two null hypotheses were developed. Based on the descriptive survey research design, the census approach was used to study the whole population of 157 administrators (Deans and head of departments) in the two public universities in the study area. Quality Assurance Practices and Institutional Effectiveness Questionnaire (QAPIEQ) was the instrument utilized to collect data. Five experts validated the instrument while an overall Cronbach reliability rating of. 853 was obtained. Data were gathered from 132 respondents due to restrictions that prevented data collection from the targeted 157 respondents. Multiple regression analysis with R studio software version 3.6.0 was used to test the two null hypotheses at the .05 alpha level. Internal quality assurance processes have a substantial influence on university institutional effectiveness (R=.924, R2=.846, F=120.851, p.05), according to the findings. External quality assurance measures were also shown to have a significant influence (R=.792, R2=.782, F=79.100, p.05) on university institutional effectiveness. Based on these findings, it was concluded that internal and external quality assurance processes are critical components that can increase university institutional performance. It was suggested, among other things, that the Nigerian Institutions Commission (NUC) should ensure that accreditation visits are made to universities at least twice, in each academic session to verify the quality of courses and programs.


Keywords: External quality assurance, Practices, Public Universities, Quality, Quality Assurance, institutional effectiveness, internal quality assurance

Quality Assurance in Nigerian Education System: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Cure (Published)

The Nigerian education system has remained in the doldrums since the pre-independence period. While the colonial administrations lopsided educational policy may be blamed for this, efforts at post-independence educational reforms did not seek to correct or change the fortunes of the system. The lethargic condition the system was thrown into during the colonial administration has continued through successful regimes and republics. Consequently, this has generated questions about its relevance. While the questions on relevance are valid, it should however be said that education has continued to serve its utilitarian purpose elsewhere in more progressive societies. These symptoms of decay are diagnosed in this paper, with a view to recommending measures that would enhance quality assurance in the education system.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Education, Quality Assurance, Symptoms, cure

Using Budgetary Allocations to Achieve Quality Assurance in Nigerian Universities: The Cost Estimates (Published)

This paper attempts to estimate the costs of realizing Quality Assurance through budgetary allocation mechanism in Nigerian universities. The Federal Republic of Nigeria (2013, p. 70) recently adopted 26% (UNESCO minimum standard) as a basis of eliminating deficiencies for realizing education imperatives such as QA vis-à-vis sub-Saharan African countries. However, this study analyzed budgetary allocation mechanism and discovered conformance (to the 26%) costs of: 10% (2013); 11% (2014); 11% (2015); 8% (2016); 7% (20117); 7% (2018); and, a nonconformance costs estimates of: -16% (2013); -16% (2014); -15% (2015); -18% (2016); -19% (2017); -18% (2018). Consequently, the paper suggests adoption of more pragmatic funding approach, by both authorities and their private partnerships, in order to actualize education imperatives like the QA) in the school system.

Keywords: 26% minimum standard, Budgetary Allocation, Quality Assurance, conformance costs, nonconformance costs

Availability of Educational Resources for Quality Assurance in Secondary Schools (Published)

This work looked at the availability of educational resources for quality assurance in secondary schools. Educational resource is seen as the physical, material, human and financial inputs in the teaching-learning process. Quality is viewed as an accepted standard measure by which product are judge as fine enough for consumption. Quality assurance is termed as the processes and actions through which the quality of secondary education is maintained and developed. The work also examined the need for quality assurance in secondary schools, strategies for establishing quality assurance in education, quality assurance measures put in place to guarantee finesse of product, availability of facilities, instructional materials, human resources and financial resources that brings about quality assurance in secondary schools. The work revealed that physical facilities, teaching and non-teaching staff as well as instructional materials were highly insufficient. The study further revealed that annual subvention to schools was less than the amount required for the administration of the schools. Based on these findings, the work concluded that quality assurance in secondary schools is crippled by insufficient educational resources. Therefore, the work suggested among others that; government should increase the annual subventions to schools, parent teachers’ association and old students’ association should also be involved in the funding and maintenance of the school facilities, the ministry of education should have a unit whose duty is to monitor the funds available to avoid misappropriation.

Keywords: Assurance, Quality, Quality Assurance, annual subvention, educational resources, insufficient, secondary school and educational system.

Using Budgetary Allocations to Achieve Quality Assurance in Nigerian Universities: The Cost Estimates (Published)

This paper attempts to estimatethe costs of realizing Quality Assurance throughbudgetary allocation mechanism in Nigerian universities. The Federal Republic of Nigeria (2013, p. 70) recently adopted 26% (UNESCO minimum standard) as a basis of eliminating deficiencies for realizing education imperatives such as QA vis-à-vis sub-Saharan African countries. However, this study analyzed budgetary allocation mechanism and discovered conformance (to the 26%) costs of: 10% (2013); 11% (2014); 11% (2015); 8% (2016); 7% (20117); 7% (2018); and, a nonconformance costs estimates of: -16% (2013); -16% (2014); -15% (2015); -18% (2016); -19% (2017); -18% (2018). Consequently, the paper suggests adoption of more pragmatic funding approach, by both authorities and their private partnerships, in order to actualize education imperatives (like the QA) in the school system.


Keywords: 26% minimum standard, Budgetary Allocation, Quality Assurance, conformance costs, nonconformance costs

Quality Assurance Practices and Students’ Performance Evaluation in Universities of South South Nigeria: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach (Published)

This study assessed quality assurance practices and students’ performance evaluation in universities of South-South Nigeria using an SEM approach. Three null hypotheses guided the study. Based on factorial research design, and using a stratified random sampling technique, a sample of 878 academic staff were drawn from a sampling frame of 15 universities in South-South Nigeria. Quality Assurance Practices Students’ Performance Evaluation Scale (QAPSPES) with split-half reliability estimates ranging from .86–.92, was used as the instruments for data collection. Multiple regression and Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were used for the analysis of data, model building, and testing of the hypotheses at .05 alpha level. Findings showed a significant composite and relative influence (F=48.19, P<.05) of school management, staff, and students’ quality assurance practices on students’ performance evaluation. The results also indicated that there were positive and significant covariances between the four variables of this study, with the CFI, RMSEA, TLI, and SRMR values indicating a good model fit. It was recommended, based on the findings of this study that, each school should organize quality assurance orientation campaigns for new students and set up quality assurance committees at the school, faculty and departmental levels for optimal performance in schools.

Keywords: CFA, Evaluation, Performance Evaluation, Quality Assurance, SEM, South-south Nigeria., Students performance

Quality Assurance and Standards in Primary Education in Nigeria (Published)

Quality education in nation building is essential in any growing country like Nigeria. It is based on this background that this paper tries to examine the importance of quality assurance in our education system. It went further to x-ray the needs for quality assurance strategies for establishing quality assurance, the roles of educational managers in assuring quality education in Nigeria and challenges facing quality assurance, The paper also recommended that the government of Nigeria should formulate policy that will last for a long time concerning education system in the country, quality in education system should therefore focus on optimal development of skills, knowledge, values, attitudes, morals and capabilities of the recipients with emphasis on those relevant to the individual and the society and government should provide enabling environment for attaining of quality education in Nigeria.

Keywords: Primary Education, Quality Assurance, Standards

Accreditation Exercise as a Quality Assurance Instrument in the Management of Universities in the Rivers of Nigeria: Prospects and Challenges (Published)

Increasingly, university institution managers world-wide are seeking for more effective tools for managing their institutions in manners that would demonstrate application of common best practices and hence, gain higher ratings on performance standards. Accreditation exercises have therefore been conceived and are being implemented in Nigerian universities to maintain standards and assure quality in service delivery. This paper examined how far accreditation exercises in universities in Rivers State have contributed to the achievement of this feat and the challenges facing it. The survey involved all the Deans and heads of academic departments in federal and state universities in three sampled universities in Rivers State. The population of the study comprised 182 (25 HoDs and 157 Deans). One self-designed instrument titled Accreditation Exercise as a Quality Assurance Instrument Questionnaire (AEQAIQ). Face and content validities were ensured by experts. The reliability coefficient of 0.81 was established with the help of Cronbach Alpha. The data generated was analysed using mean statistics and independent sample t-test. The result revealed that accreditation exercises impacted moderately on curriculum harmonization, the provision of staff offices, libraries and the general institutional environment. The exercises however have minimal impact on the provision of equipments in laboratories and workshops. Poor funding, poor institutional data base and some lack of commitment to standards by university proprietors were identified as some of the challenges to achieving quality assurance from accreditation exercises. It was concluded that universities in the Rivers State of Nigeria have not sufficiently capitalized on their routine accreditation exercises to adequately assure quality in the delivery and management of university education. The need for university managers to be more pro-active in accreditation exercises and establish internal quality assurance framework to achieve quality in the management of these universities were recommended.

Keywords: Accreditation Exercise, Management of Universities, Quality Assurance

Quality Assurance: A Tool For Improved Nursing Practice: A Paper Presented At Conference of Heads of Basic & Post Basic Nursing Educational Institutions (Published)

Nigeria is a melting pot of the good, the bad and the ugly.  The good part are its abundant human and material resources, the bad aspects are poor utilization and mismanagement of the country’s abundant human & material resources, while its ugly face are; bad leadership, corruption, lack of patriotism, selfishness and misgovernance.  These affects the quality of administration and service in all ramifications, the worst hit of which is the quality of education and health service which resulted in, poor ranking of its health service as Number 187 out of 190 countries by the World Health Organization (WHO).  This places Nigeria behind some of the poorest countries in terms of the quality of Health Care provisions such as Tanzania, Eritrea, Ethopia, Niger, Chad, Mauritania etc (WHO 2015).  The poor ranking of health service in Nigeria therefore is, a serious challenge not only to the policy makers/legislators but also to; all health care practitioners, most especially Nurse educators and practitioners. In order to ensure quality assurance for improved health care service as a whole, all hands must be on deck so as to curtail the deteriorating quality of health Service in Nigeria.

Keywords: Educational Institutions, Nursing Practice: Basic, Post Basic Nursing, Quality Assurance

Implementing Quality and Accreditation in Higher Education in Five European Countries (Published)

The national Quality Assurance Agencies of most European countries have developed accreditation criteria considering the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG, 2015). The paper reports the findings of a comparative study of the national accreditation criteria for programme evaluation which are in use in five European countries, namely Greece, Denmark, Austria, Britain and Ireland. The official published documents available on the Agencies’ websites were reviewed and analyzed. The paper presents and discusses the variation of the criteria additions and omissions from the ESG model for each individual case. The reported comparisons show that a ‘general model’ is followed since the agencies of the five countries operate in substantial compliance with the ESG. However, each country places emphasis on different criteria.  

Keywords: European Standards and Guidelines, Higher Education, Quality Assurance, Quality Management, accreditation criteria, national systems

Assessing the Assessors from the Student Angle: Implication for Quality Assurance in Public Secondary Schools in Lagos Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria (Published)

Visionary teachers are needed to achieve quality teaching and learning in the school. It is now firmly believed that the effective functioning of an organization depends largely on employees’ efforts that extend beyond formal role requirements. This study therefore investigated the predictive power of some quality assurance indices (school climate, principals’ leadership role, instructional supervision, availability and utilization of instructional resources) on teachers’ job effectiveness in secondary schools. Five hundred and eighty-three (583) Senior Secondary School students comprising of 268 males and 315 females were sampled for this study. Self-developed instrument tagged “Quality Assurance in Education” was employed to obtain responses from the participants. Analyses of data were done using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis fixed at the .05 significant levels. Results revealed 16% of the variance in the teachers’ job effectiveness was accounted for by the combination of instructional supervision, instructional resources, school climate, and principal leadership ((R = .817; R2 = .667; R2 (adj) = .663; F(4,582) = 20.376; p < .05). This revealed that among others that school climate was the most potent predictor (β = .300; t = 7.354; p < .05), followed by principal leadership style; (β = .279; t = 5.897; p <. 05), instructional supervision (β = .151; t = 5.098; p > .05); and lastly by instructional resources (β = .093; t = 3.765; p > .05). The findings showed that students’ assessment based on the quality assurance indices were potent in the prediction of teachers’ job effectiveness. Based on the outcome of this study, it was recommended that Since the work environment is significantly related to job effectiveness of teachers, government should encourage the support of parents, students, philanthropists, and corporate institutions in improving secondary schools’ work environment in terms of physical facilities, information services, authority-staff relationship, and staff development in order to enhance better job performance of the teachers.

Keywords: Job Effectiveness, Principals’ Leadership Role, Quality Assurance, School climate, Secondary Schools, Teachers

Competitiveness in Higher Education Practices in Sierra Leone: A Model for Sustainable Growth (Published)

This article has taken a step towards providing an open critical approach for the future of sustainable growth for HETIs in Sierra Leone. The system at the moment needs a complete review and overhaul in order to move forward in competing with HETIs at a global scale. The government on its own cannot continue take up the burden of a 100% funding for HETIs in the country (with increase population growth rate) when the situation across the region, and the world is such that HETIs are developing great plans towards self-sufficiency / sustenance through high quality teaching and learning, and more importantly, competitive research ventures. A model has been worked out for a future sustainable and competitive HETIs in the country, and partnership with TEC, followed by some realistic recommendations for consideration both in the present and the future.

Keywords: Competitiveness, Higher Education, Quality Assurance, Sierra Leone, Sustainable Growth

Nagi Methods of Map Quality Evaluation (Published)

Map quality evaluation is one of the important tasks that can face map specialists in particular and map users in general. Numerical description of the map product to justify its quality was studied by the author who has developed before, a new approach of map quality evaluation that, successfully applied globally by different researchers. Here, in this research work, a new formula has been developed to numerically evaluate map product. The evaluation base on computing a satisfaction factor suggested to be called Weighted Nagi Factor. The developed formula assumes different weights of the map criteria according to map application or specification adopted. This new Weighted Nagi Method, successfully applied to a sample map product of Khartoum state survey authority. Results proved that the new weighted method is practicable to numerically describe a map product taking into account the importance of each criteria adopted according to a particular application. The method is also simple and easy to be applied by any stakeholder, map quality evaluator or map user.   

Keywords: Average, Map standards, Nagi Factor, Quality Assurance, Quality control, Weight, Weighted Nagi-Factor, Weighted average

Towards Achieving Quality Assurance in Office Technology and Management Programme in Delta State Polytechnics (Published)

The study examined achieving quality assurance in Office Technology and Management Programme in Delta State Polytechnics. Recent findings in the educational sector, revealed that some programmes in most polytechnics, universities and other similar tertiary institutions, do not observe religiously, the specified guidelines and course specification in order to ensure standards. Its resultant effects are that most of their graduates lacked the requisite skills, knowledge and competencies necessary to fit into the world of work. It is on this note that the programme of Office Technology and Management in Delta State Polytechnics is being examined to see how quality assurance would be achieved, maintained and sustained. The study revealed that OTM is a programme of study meant to help its entrant to acquire the relevant knowledge in office skills and competencies for self actualization and sustainability and that quality assurance is a planned and systematic review process carried out by organizations or institutions to determine if standards are being met as this is the only panacea that help in ensuring confidence, standards, acceptable norms and practices for maximum academic excellence and achievement in OTM programmes as well as other educational programmes.

Keywords: OTM., Quality, Quality Assurance

Office Automation: A Tool for Quality Assurance in Work Delivery in Office Technology and Management (OTM) (Published)

This paper x-rayed how office automation has helped the Office Technology and Management graduates to increase productivity in their work. Two research questions guided the study. The paper examined critically the equipment found in an automated office and how it has actually assured the quality performance of the secretary. A total of 360 Office Technology and Management graduates selected from public and private organizations in Delta South Senatorial District formed the population of the study. The sample of this study consisted of 108 graduates of Office Technology and Management. The information collected from the respondents was grouped together for meaningful analysis of the data using simple percentages. Suggestions were made as to what the Office Technology and Management graduate must do in order to get the best out of an automated office. Based on the researcher’s findings, recommendations which includes that secretaries should not entertain fear that automated devices will displace them but rather to see it as something which has come to assist them to do their jobs in order to improve their efficiency and productivity are made to strengthen the Office Technology and Management graduates chances of being totally familiar with the modern equipment so that increased productivity can be guaranteed and quality assured.

Keywords: Management, Office Automation, Productivity, Quality Assurance, Technology