Public Policy and Economic Empowerment: A study of Trader Moni Scheme of Buhari Administration in Nigeria (Published)
The study examined the effect of Public Policy on Economic Empowerment – A study of Tradermoni Scheme of Buhari Administration. The survey design was used in this study to generate data. The population of the study consists of all the 87 million people in extreme poverty in Nigeria. The sample selection of the people recognized by our population definition was done randomly. The key instrument used to elicit data in this study was questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse data in this study. The study found that the major activities of Trader Moni towards Poverty alleviation in Nigeria include: N10,000 loan, N15,000 loan, N20,000 loan, N50,000 loan, N100,000 loan, N150,000 loan and N300,000 loan. The study found that Trader Moni generates empowerment for petty traders in Nigeria. The study found that the major factors affecting the implementation of Trader Moni towards poverty alleviation in Nigeria include: Insufficient information, non-payment of stipend to participants as at when due, bribery and corruption, wrong bank verification number (BVN), overbearing hands of politicians in the programme, high transportation fare paid by the participants to work, website and internet hiccups, poor funding of the programme. Conclusively, eeconomic empowerment and poverty alleviation programmes in Nigeria have since the 20th and 21st centuries been in the increase. Tradermoni aspires to provide a platform where most Nigerian petty traders can access soft loans of interest free orientation. Tradermoni addresses the challenge of petty traders’ lack of capital by providing a structure for interest free loan advancement with repayment plan of six months for a higher loan collection, while linking its core and outcomes to fixing inadequate public services and stimulating the larger economy. From the test of the hypotheses it was conclusive that trader moni impacts on poverty alleviation in Nigeria and trader moni engenders economic empowerment of petty traders in Nigeria.The study therefore recommends that government should encourage the strengthening of the capability for unemployed rural and urban dwellers. Since unemployed people constitute an increasing portion of the rural dwellers, economic policies should aim at enhancing their economic empowerment and poverty alleviation in Nigeria performance. Equitable access to financial resources and services should be provided. They will need credit and extension services and assistance in adopting improved economic empowerment and poverty alleviation in Nigeria practices and technologies that are suited to their capabilities.
Europeanization of private international law of the European Union member states is a Condition Sine Qua Non for the well functioning of the European common market. In this frame, creation of a unified group of rules for determination of the applicable law in potential cases that may arise is a necessity. Among this rules, one of the most debated topic is exclusion that relates with public order or public policies. The application of the foreign law sometimes constitutes a “dance with the unknown”, and this “dance” reflects some threats that become visible when the application of the foreign law is in conflict with some fundamental concepts of the lex fori. Even though, the exclusion of the foreign law should be an exceptional case that should happen once in a blue moon. Public order does not reflect a connection criteria, but it acts before a conflictual reasoning emerges, to block in extremis the application of the foreign law. In this frame, analyzing the Rome II Regulation regarding the public policy of the European Union (forum) represents a major problem in respect of its historical implementation background.
An Evaluation of the Challenges of Representation to Public Policy Formulation and Implementation in Nigeria (Published)
The study examined how the challenges faced by the democratic principle of representation affect public policy formulation and implementation. If it were possible for constituencies to directly deal with governments in making their inputs in public policy formulation and implementation, they would have been better disposed to pass on their felt needs for inclusion in the formulation and implementation of public policies. But since this is not possible for logistic reasons associated with the governmental processes, representation has thus become inevitable. However, much as representation is meant to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of governance, it faces challenges that limit its ability to wholly pass across the wishes and needs of the constituencies for inclusion in government policies and programmes. In examining these challenges, questionnaire were administered to 480 respondents who are politically conscious with a minimum of first degree graduate education. The location of the survey was Enugu state of Nigeria and respondents were free to respond to the questions as it applied to their various constituencies. The study found out, among other things, that there is hardly existing constituency benchmarks which guide representatives, against which their representative functions are evaluated. Secondly, there are no defined channels through which constituencies regularly communicate their needs and issue positions to be considered in policy formulation and programmes to their representatives. Thirdly, there are no functional machinery charged with regular assessment of legislators to ascertain their level of compliance or otherwise with the issue position of their constituencies. Fourthly, the level of confidence constituents have in their representatives to take the right decision/position on issues concerning their constituencies is significantly low. Fifthly, constituents do not know the voting pattern of their representatives in the various Legislatures to ascertain their level of responsiveness to constituency needs. Finally, the interest of political parties that produced candidates for election into the Legislature over the years do not reflected the interest of the constituencies. In view of the foregoing findings, the study recommended the need for constituency-articulated benchmark to guide representative activities. Secondly, the electoral process should allow independent candidacy to make it possible for constituencies to elect candidates with credible character that win the confidence of their constituents. Thirdly, there should be a regular channel of communication between representatives and their constituencies which should also serve the purpose of evaluating the performance of representatives. Fourthly, a voting method in the legislature that makes it possible for constituency members to access the voting records of their representatives need be introduced. Fifthly, the political system needs to evolve a system that allows a fuller public participation in the crafting, implementation and evaluation of public policies.
Political Leadership and Policy Decisions in Africa: A Critical Reflection on Policies in Education and Employment in Ghana. (Published)
Since colonial times, governments in Ghana have inherited political power with different development plans, owned by the government and amended by the incoming one when its predecessor leaves power. Article 35(7) of the Directive Principle of State Policy in Ghana states that “[A]s far as practicable, a government shall continue and execute projects and programmes commenced by the previous Governments.” This provision is supported by both the National Development Planning Commission Act and the National Development Planning Act to strengthen the role of the National Development Planning Commission which oversees the broader implementation of development strategies in the country. The analysis in this paper is influenced by interviews conducted with officials of the Ministry of Education in Ghana, the Ghana Education Service, selected heads and teachers of sampled secondary schools, as well as parents. A total of twenty (20) respondents were purposively sampled and interviewed. The analysis of the primary data was supported by other secondary sources including peer-reviewed journal articles, books and reports of educational development in Ghana. The results indicate the utter disregard for the provisions in both educational and employment policies and strategies in the country and its associated consequence on the purse of the public and general development of the state. The paper concludes that the apparent lack of consistency, over-politicization and the piecemeal attitude with which Ghanaian political leaders implement important national development policies may be mitigated by the adoption of development strategies that are national in character rather than government-specific and these strategies should be binding on all successive governments and geared towards an accelerated growth at all levels in the country
PUBLIC POLICY MAKING AND IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIA: THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN PERSPECTIVES (Review Completed - Accepted)
It is unconceivable to have a developed state without public policies. Either so name or not, no state that is serious of being named among the well-to-do countries of the world cannot be without strategic plan of development. This wisdom informed the formulation of the various policies in Nigeria. Although the Millennium Development Goals did not have Nigeria-origin, the country, being a strategic member of the United Nations from where Millennium Development Goals originated, has domesticated and incorporated the policy into the various sectors of the country’s national life on which the Goals are applicable. In this paper, data was sourced from documentary materials like books, journals, internet resources, etc,and explanatory technique was used as method of analysis. However, the findings of the paper revealed that Nigeria has made giant strides in achieving some goals of the MDGs; 100% in goal 6, partially in others, but performed below expectations in others. Significantly, the paper is a useful material to the policy makers and researchers who may wish to carry out further research on the topic. Therefore the paper recommended that Nigerian Government should be more serious in eradicating poverty by committing more resources into programmes like the National Poverty Alleviation Programme (NAPEP), National Directorate on Employment (NDE), among others. With adequate funding and effective monitoring and utilization of financial resources committed into making these programmes work, poverty will be reduced to the barest minimum and standard of living of Nigerians improved.
Legislative-Executive Dichotomy In The Public Policy Process: A Perspective on Nigeria’s Fourth Republic (Published)
The Fourth Republic will perhaps go down in recorded history as the most durable and eventful in Nigeria’s political and constitutional development. In it, democracy has endured for about a decade and a half. This development has offered the needed impetus to rethink the task of nation building that started over fifty two years ago. In specific terms, thirteen years of unbroken civil rule is significant to the extent that it provides opportunity to reconstruct the political system along strong democratic principles anchored on a durable and inclusive constitutional framework. This paper offers a perspective on the public policy process in the light of legislative-executive dichotomy. Drawing extensively from literature on the subject matter, and against the backdrop of extant provisions of the 1999 constitution, the paper observes that, both actors in the governance project are lacking in sincere commitment to constitutional provisions and settled principles of the law. It concludes that without prejudice to the constitutional separation of powers and the attendant checks and balances, a permissible plank of cooperation and interdependence creates a stable policy environment to promote the common good of all. A number of recommendations are offered, some of which include; an urgent call to promote a regime of constitutionalism, the institutionalisation of legislative activism, and the need for government to pledge a renewed commitment to fight corruption that has become a systemic menace.