In late 2017, Brazilian president Michel Temer commissioned a survey about civil service and government expenditures at the World Bank. The results were catastrophic: The Brazilian government spends significantly more than it collects and allocates its resources in an inefficient way, impacting negatively the Brazilian economy growth. One of the villains pointed by the report is precisely the size of the government, the inefficient Federal Civil Service, especially the high salaries, and disproportional benefits from the Executive branch, especially regarding the Social Security regime. The initiative is part of the Federal Government to follow through a controversial reform on civil service, under current Congress debate, in a year of presidential elections. Will the reform succeed? We analyzed the challenges and pitfalls on the Brazilian Civil Service, and its reform proposals, in comparison to: (a) private service, and (b) to equivalent civil services from other countries. Finally, we addressed the discussion on its implications to the Brazilian economy, and brought recommendations for public managers, as well as future research.
The purpose of this paper is to present the current situation in Albania, regarding women’s representation in public administration, in front of European integration challenge. Women’s representation in public administration is analyzed in this paper, with special focus at senior management position as well as in decision-making bodies, compared with the standards of gender quota in Albania and European Union countries. This analysis is based on secondary data; reports or other studies which are processed and analyzed through the statistical comparison. The methodology used is the descriptive and comparative one. There are different findings regarding the different levels of public administration. Women’s representation at low and middle level of public administration, marks significant achievements, exceeded national and European gender quota standards, while at senior management level and decision making bodies it is still in critical level.
Promisee’s Right to Bound Public Authorities to Their Promise: The Debate between the Doctrine of Estoppel and Legitimate Expectation (Published)
It is common place that public authorities sometimes give assurance to individual or group of citizen such as postponing development project, relocation, provision of benefits etc. As public administrative does not exist only to serves the interest of the representee, the rights and interest of others must be considered as well. Hence the ability of representee to enforce promises made by the authorities denotes administrative consistency and trust for the government. Traditionally, the representor is prevented by the private law doctrine of estoppel from resiling. However, the principle has gradually shifted towards collectivism. This essay revisit the principle behind the traditional doctrine and the current principle of legitimate expectation. In view of gradual acceptance of the latter, this essay discusses the viability of abolishing the traditional doctrine and the possible effect to future claims.
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE NEW CIVIL SERVICE LAW IN ALBANIA IN VIEW OF THE COMMITMENTS UNDER OF THE STABILISATION-ASSOCIATION AGREEMENT WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION (Published)
Albania signed the Stabilisation Association Agreement with the EU in 2006. In june 2014 it has been officially accepted as a EU candidate state. The SAA agreement fosters democratic principles and protection of human rights, rule of law, and the principles of the market economy as enshrined and proclaimed in some key international documents such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, European Convention of Human Rights and in the Helsinki Final Act. Title VIII of the SAA “Policies of cooperation”, includes important provisons with regard to the public administration. It regulates in technical terms the obligation of Albania to establish an effective and responsible public administration seeking to implement the rule of law principles. The transparent and impartial recruitment procedures, management of human resources, career develoment in the public services sector both at the cental and local administation levels are crucial in this process. The signing of the SAA is only the first step for the comprehensive reform of the Albanian public adminstration, aimining at attaining the standards set forth by the principles of the European administrative space. The establishment of a system of professional civil servants that would guarantee the independence, integrity, transparence and the implementation of the principles of an open and efficient administration toward the public, remains a challenge. A new civil service law was adopted in 2013, aiming at the establishment of a stable and professional civil service system, based on merits, moral integrity, political neutrality and accountability of its members. The new law also regulates the juridical relationship between the State and civil servants and determines the management rules of the civil service. The paper explores the new civil service regulation in force in Albania, from the perspective of the obligations provided in the SAA regarding the strengthening of public administration and the establishment of a civil service system responding effectively to the integration challenges ahead, as well as in a comparative overview to the abolished system of civil service
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the status and impact of reforms in governance which has been taken by various governments in Bangladesh since its independence. In doing so, the paper highlights on two reform packages New Public Management (NPM) of OECD member countries and Good Governance (GG) of donor agencies and its impact on Bangladeshi governance. Bangladesh was a colony of British and Pakistan over two centuries. As a result, at the initial stage of independence; the inherited administrative structure failed to manage the postcolonial economy and expectation of citizens of independent Bangladesh, which hinders to implement most of the reform efforts. Civil-military elitism dominated the bureaucracy that caused the lessening of accountability of the administration; as a result, corruption, inefficiency and ineffectiveness of administration appear to exemplify Bangladeshi governance. The learning lessons for public administration is lack of appropriate political leadership, unrealistic and ambitious reform initiatives, incapacity of government, chaotic political culture, absence of permanent reform institution, and lack of strong political will are responsible for futile to implement any reform initiative. Apart from these, some important elements of New Public Management (NPM) and Good Governance (GG) has been bespoke by recent past governments in governance process through policy initiatives to make the administration more accountable and citizen centric which is a very good sign of good governance in Bangladesh. Therefore, the impact of reform strategies of western world (NPM) and donor agencies (GG) influenced the third world countries like Bangladesh which ultimately transforming the literature of Public Administration to Public Management.