Tag Archives: Proximate

Phytochemical screening and proximate analyses of some Medicinal plants used in Irun Akoko, Akoko North West Local Government Area Ondo State, Nigeria. (Published)

The study was designed to focus on the potential of seven selected medicinal plants vis Azadiracta indica (A.Juss), Saraca indica (Linn.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf,), Morinda lucida, (Benth.), Moringa oleifera (Lam.), Acacia senegalens (Houtt.), and Gossypium arboretum (Jacq.). The plants are relatively available, effective, disease resistance, less toxic and found traditionally medicinal relevance in the study area.This work was designed to identify secondary metabolites present in the leaves extracts of Azadiracta indica (A.Juss). Saraca indica (Linn.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf,), Morinda lucida, (Benth.), Moringa oleifera (Lam.), Acacia senegalens (Houtt.), and Gossypium arboretum (Jacq.) to validate their traditional importancePhytochemical screening and proximate analysis was carried out using standard qualitative and quantitative tests respectively. The screening assessed and determined the proximate composition of Azadiracta indica; Saraca indica; Cymbopogon citratus; Morinda lucida; Moringa oleifera; Acacia senegalens; and Gossypium arboretum. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) while  Duncan’s New Multiple range test were applied at 0.05 level of significance (p < 0.05). Phytochemical screening of the plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenols and flavonoids. Nutritional analysis revealed that all the plants were rich in crude protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash, moisture and dietary fiber. Morinda lucida has the highest moisture contents of 13.42± 0.05 % while Saraca indica has the least moisture contents of 9.19± 0.52 %. Acacia senegalens has the highest fat contents of 6.17±0.70 % while Azardiracta indica has the least contents of 2.84 ± 0.19  %. Similarly, Gossypium arboretum has the highest ash content of 13.46± 0.08 while Saraca indica is having least ash content of 6.60±0.03 %. Moringa oleifera has the highest proteins contents of 7.81±0.08 % while Cymbopogon citratus has least protein content of 3.64± 0.05 %. Gossypium arbereum has the highest number of fibers 11.28± 0.11  % while Saraca indica is having least fiber contents of 7.35± 0.14 %. Also, Saraca indica has the highest carbohydrates contents of 67.69 ± 0.11 while Moringa oleifera is having the least of carbohydrates content of 52.97±0.23 % respectively. Proximate composition in the plants supported various body functions such as body development, maintenance of fluid balance, formation of hormones, enzymes, repair of worn out tissues, sustaining strong immune function among others. Therefore, the results of this study validated the traditional relevance of the plants.

Keywords: Medicinal Plant, Phytochemical, Proximate, aqueous solvents, traditional relevance

Effects of Kocho Flour Blending with Flaxseed Flour on Nutritional Quality and Sensory Acceptability of Composite Flat Bread (Published)

In Ethiopia, there are various traditional foods with potential to be developed in to nutritional foods. It is important to reduce the incidence of malnutrition, through supplementation and development of nutritious food from locally available resources such as enset plant and flaxseed crops. This study was, therefore initiated with the objective to improve the nutritional quality of kocho products by combining with flaxseed. The study was conducted with two factors, flaxseed varieties and blending ratio (95:05, 90:10, and 85:15) of kocho to flaxseed flour with control 100% kocho flour using completely randomized design and treatment means were tested at significance level of p < 0.05 with three replications. Assessment was made on the proximate composition, mineral content and sensory acceptability of food in the form of bread. Flaxseed flour had influence on moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat and energy content of breads. With 15% flaxseed substitution, percentage moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fat, and crude fiber and energy (kcal) were to 5.12, 2.14, 4.30, 6.78, 4.01 and 388.82, respectively. Carbohydrates were high for control. Kocho bread blending with flaxseed flour at 5%, 10%, and 15% showed a significant (P < 0.05) effect on minerals. With 15% flaxseed substitution Ca, P, Zn, and Fe contents (mg/100g) to 123.30, 136.85, 1.89 and 2.99, respectively. Sensory acceptability of the product increased with increasing level of flaxseed flour supplementation. In conclusion, Kocho bread has lacking nutritional content hence, blending of flaxseed in production of Kocho flat bread to improve nutritional, mineral and sensory acceptability of Kocho-flaxseed bread.

 

Keywords: Enset, Flaxseed, Proximate, kocho-flaxseed bread, sensory acceptability.

Quality Evaluation of Cookies Made From Wheat Flour Fortified With Tiger Nut Flour and Date Palm Fruit (Published)

Cookies are baked food that is typically small, flat and sweet. It usually contains flour, sugar and other ingredients. Tiger nut is globally recognized for its nutritional, functional and medicinal properties that are suitable for children, grownups and sport men. However, it is highly underutilized. The inclusion of date palm fruit in the production of cookies from wheat flour fortified with tiger nut flour enhances good sensory attributes and reduces the risk of diabetics associated with consumption of granulated sugar as sweeteners. The samples were formulated as 75%, 15% and 10%; 70%, 20% and 10%; 65%, 20% and 15%; 60%, 15% and 25%; and 50%, 30% and 20% of wheat flour, tiger nut flour and date palm fruit respectively. Pasting properties of composite flour, proximate and microbial analyses of the products were determined. Pasting properties showed that peak viscosity (2093 – 2792) RVU; trough viscosity (1480 – 2031) RVU; breakdown viscosity (434 – 759) RVU; final viscosity (3016 – 3258) RVU; setback viscosity (1210 – 1536) RVU; pasting temperature (68.20 – 71.55)oC; and pasting time (8.77 – 9.31) minutes. Proximate analysis showed that crude protein (11.33 – 11.99)%; crude fat (1.25 – 2.36)%; crude fibre (1.88 – 2.40)%; total ash (1.68 – 1.89)%; moisture content (10.83 – 12.63)%; and carbohydrate (68.48 – 70.89)%. Microbial count of the cookies showed that at week 0, there was no growth both in the nutrient agar plates and in the potato dextrose agar plate. From week 1 to week 3, total viable count in cookies stored at ambient condition was found to be higher than those stored in the refrigeration and freezing condition. However, bacterial count was found to be higher in week 1, 2 and 3 for each storage condition. At p˂0.5 level of significance, there was no significant difference in most sensory attributes considered. Overall acceptability of cookies were rated high between like slightly and like extremely. This is an indication that apart from additional nutritional benefit, organoleptic quality and suitability of the food satisfied consumer’s perception.

Keywords: Flour, Proximate, Quality, Sensory, microbial, pasting

Effect of Substitution of Soya Beans and Moringa Oleifera Leaf Flour on the Properties of a Traditional Weaning Food (Published)

Traditional weaning foods are made from monotonous cereals which contributes to malnutrition in young children. Fermented millet (FMF), soya beans (SBF)and moringa oleifera leaf flour (MLF) were used to formulate weaning food blends in the ratio FMF:SBF:MLF- sample C (60:35:5), sample D (60:30:10), sample E (60:25:5), sample F (60:20:20) sample A (100 % FMF) was used as control, sample B (FMF(60):SBF(40). These were subjected to proximate, functional and sensory analysis. All analysis were done using standard methods. The result of the proximate analysis indicated that substitution with moringa oleifera leaf flour at (5, 10, 15 and 20) % significantly (p<0.05) increased the Ash, fibre and carbohydrates. Protein and fat content were highest in sample B and lowest in the control. The Samples with MLF decreased with increased substitution levels. Substitution with MLF increased the Water absorption capacity and least gelation concentration from 0.94±0.01 to 1.86±0.01 and 4.00±0.00 to 10.00±0.00 respectively. Bulk density and swelling capacity decreased with increased MLF substitution from 0.68±0.01 to 0.58±0.01 and 3.33±0.01 to 2.82±0.01 respectively. The result of the sensory evaluation showed preference for sample C with 5 % MLF.

Keywords: Functional, Proximate, Sensory, Weaning Food

Effect of Domestic Processing Method on the Proximate and Anti-Nutritional Components of Cnidoscolus Aconitifolius Leaf. (Published)

The effect of domestic processing method on the proximate and anti-nutritional content of the leaf of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius was properly investigated using standard method. The proximate result shows that there were high content of ash, protein, fibre, and carbohydrate, with ranges of 2.20±0.6-2.67±0.5, 2.91±3.0-3.60±1.0, 1.43±0.1-2.50±0.1 and 8.79±2.6-9.65±1.6 respectively and fat between 78.33±0.10-86.30±0.28. Little concentrations of phytate, oxalate and tannin, with ranges of 0.22 ± 0.01% – 0.35% ± 0.01%, 0.14 ± 0.02% – 0.41 ± 0.09% and 1.64 ± 0.03% – 1.94 ± 0.02% were observed. The concentrations of these anti-nutrients were controlled by the treatment process. This result proves that Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves has highly rich nutrients and therefore should be recommended for used as food condiments and feeds for farm animals. The treatment processes affected to a great extent the concentration of the anti-nutritional components of Cnidoscolusa conitifolius leaves.

Keywords: Anti-Nutrition, Cnidoscolusa Conitifolius., Domestic Processing Methods, Nutrition, Proximate

Proximate Composition and Mineral Contents of Different Brands of Canned Fishes Marketed In Edo State Nigeria (Published)

Proximate composition and mineral content (Na, Ca, P and Mg) of fish is of great importance to fisheries managers, consumer and the nutritionist. In this study, seventeen different types of canned fish products were collected from super-stores and open market, proximate composition and the mineral elements (sodium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium) of the different brands purchased were determined between January and September, 2015. The entire sample used were bought at the same time and kept at ambient room temperature, and every analysis was done in triplicate.  The results obtained showed that a gradual reduction in the food value (proximate composition) and the percentage mineral content of the different brands with a progressive reduction in the different months. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan multiple range test (DMRT) at 5% level of significance, revealed that there were significant differences in the proximate and mineral components of the different brands and among the months, although some of these parameters were not significantly different for some brands. Results obtained from correlation analysis during the study revealed that there was a negative correlation relationship between fat/oil, fibre, nitrogen free extract (NFE) with moisture content, while there was also a positive significant relationship between protein/ash content, protein/moisture; also, a positive correlation existed between sodium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The result obtained from this study indicates that these canned fishes analyzed were of high nutritional value and mineral content, but there is need to keep them at optimum temperature and not for too long in storage to enable consumer to derive the appropriate benefit from their consumption.

Keywords: Analysis, Benin City, Brands, Canning, Mineral, Proximate

Microbial Composition, Antibiotic Sensitivity and Proximate Composition of Popular Imported Powdered Infant Milk Formulas sold in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. (Published)

The study was carried out to determine the microbial and proximate composition of  popular imported infant milk formulas in retail market at Ado-Ekiti. A total of six popular commercial infant milk poducts were purchased from the main market in Ado- Ekiti, Nigeria, and evaluated for microbial composition: total bacterial, coliform and fungal counts. Their proximate components were also determined. The total bacterial count ranged from 0.6×103 to 0.9×104 CFU/ml, with mean value of 3.4×103 CFU/g, the total coliform ranged from 0.2×103 to 0.6×104 CFU/ml, with the mean value of 1.7 x 103 CFU/g and the total fungal count ranged from 0.2×103 to 0.5×104 CFU/ml, with the mean value of 0.9 x103 CFU/g. Enteric bacteria and mycotoxigenic fungi were isolated from the formulas. Having subjected all the bacteria isolates to antibiotic susceptibility test, they all showed multiple antibiotic resistance index. The fat content ranged from 10mg/100g to 27.7mg/100g with mean value of 17.8mg/100mg;  protein content, 1.5mg/100mg  with mean value of 10.68mg/100mg and carbohydrate content ranged from 7.2mg/100mg with the mean value of 50.76 mg/100g. However  ash, moisture and fibre contents of all the samples were insignificant. This study depicted the possibility of microbial contamination in infant milk formula supposedly sterile.

Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Infant milk formula, Microbial count, Proximate

Effect of Size on Proximate Composition and Heavy Metal Content of the Mangrove Oyster Crassostrea gasar from the Andoni River, Nigeria (Published)

The proximate composition and heavy metal content of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar from the Andoni River was investigated. Samples were categorized into three class sizes: small (< 25 mm), medium (25-50 mm), and large (> 50 mm) each with 10 sampling units for each class size. Differences across class size were significant for carbohydrate, lipid, and fiber content with their highest mean values recorded as 58.39 ± 0.21%, 6.70 ± 0.10% and 18.22 ± 0.28% respectively. Size-specific differences were detected only for concentrations of lead and zinc which showed maximum concentrations of 0.53 ± 0.02μg/g and 42.69 ± 1.81μg/g respectively. The proximate composition and heavy metal content recorded were generally higher in large-sized oysters and the variations observed were attributed to obvious differences in their class sizes. The remarkably low moisture content recorded in C. gasar was attributed to higher drying temperatures (105°C). Food quality and uptake of heavy metals in tissues of C. gasar generally varied along size gradients, with peak values in large-sized individuals. However, the levels of heavy metals recorded in soft tissues of C. gasar in this study were generally very low and fall within levels expected in tissues of aquatic biota.   

Keywords: Content, Heavy Metal, Oyster & Size, Proximate

Microbial Composition, Antibiotic Sensitivity and Proximate Composition of Popular Imported Powdered Infant Milk Formulas sold in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria (Published)

ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to determine the microbial and proximate composition of popular imported infant milk formulas in retail market at Ado-Ekiti. A total of six popular commercial infant milk poducts were purchased from the main market in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria, and evaluated for microbial composition: total bacterial, coliform and fungal counts. Their proximate components were also determined. The total bacterial count ranged from 0.6×103 to 0.9×104 CFU/ml, with mean value of 3.4×103CFU/g, the total coliform ranged from 0.2×103 to 0.6×104 CFU/ml, with the mean value of 1.7 x 103CFU/g and the total fungal count ranged from 0.2×103 to 0.5×104 CFU/ml, with the mean value of 0.9 x103CFU/g. Enteric bacteria and my cotoxigenic fungi were isolated from the formulas. Having subjected all the bacteria isolates to antibiotic susceptibility test, they all showed multiple antibiotic resistance index. The fat content ranged from 10mg/100g to 27.7mg/100g with mean value of 17.8mg/100mg; protein content, 1.5mg/100mg with mean value of 10.68mg/100mg and carbohydrate content ranged from 7.2mg/100mg with the mean value of 50.76 mg/100g. However ash, moisture and fibre contents of all the samples were insignificant.

This study depicted the possibility of microbial contamination in infant milk formula supposedly sterile.

 

Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Infant milk formula, Microbial count, Proximate

Microbial Composition, Antibiotic Sensitivity And Proximate Composition Of Popular Imported Powdered Infant Milk Formulas Sold In Ado Ekiti, Nigeria (Published)

The study was carried out to determine the microbial and proximate composition ofpopular imported infant milk formulas in retail market at Ado-Ekiti. A total of six popularcommercial infant milkpoducts were purchased from the main market in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria, and evaluated for microbial composition: total bacterial, coliform and fungal counts. Their proximate components were also determined. The total bacterial count ranged from 0.6×103 to 0.9×104 CFU/ml, with mean value of 3.4×103CFU/g, the total coliform ranged from 0.2×103 to 0.6×104 CFU/ml, with the mean value of 1.7 x 103CFU/g and the total fungal countranged from 0.2×103 to 0.5×104 CFU/ml, with the mean value of 0.9 x103CFU/g. Enteric bacteria and mycotoxigenic fungi were isolated from the formulas. Having subjected all the bacteria isolates to antibiotic susceptibility test, they all showed multiple antibiotic resistanceindex. The fat content ranged from 10mg/100g to 27.7mg/100g with mean value of 17.8mg/100mg; protein content, 1.5mg/100mg with mean value of 10.68mg/100mg and carbohydrate content ranged from 7.2mg/100mg with the mean value of 50.76 mg/100g. However ash, moisture and fibre contents of all the samples were insignificant.This study depicted the possibility of microbial contamination in infant milk formula supposedly sterile.

Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Infant milk formula, Microbial count, Proximate

Effect of Processing On the Nutritional and Anti Nutritional Properties of Canavalia Plagiosperma Piper Seeds (Published)

The effect of heat processing on the nutritional and anti nutritional qualities of oblique -seeded jack bean (Canavalia plagiosperma piper) was studied. Raw seeds of Canavalia plagiosperma (Oblique seeded Jack bean) were autoclaved (at 1210C, 15lb for 25, 30 and 35 minutes) and cooked (at 1000C for 30, 40 and 50 minutes). The proximate composition and anti-nutrients of the processed and raw samples were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content of raw seed was 8.26%, 35 minutes autoclaving increased it to 8.53% while 50 minutes cooking increased it to 8. 84%. Autoclaving reduced protein content from 31.54% to 31.28% while cooking reduced it from 31.54% to 28.86%. The ash content was reduced from 3.17% to 2.95% by autoclaving and from 3.17% to 2.51% by cooking. Autoclaving showed increasing effect on fat and energy content,(0.82-9.23%) and (1635.66-1637.94 KJ/g) respectively. The fibre content of the raw seed was found to be 0.94%, which was reduced to 0.88% by autoclaving and 0.62% by cooking. Cooking significantly increased the carbohydrate content (47.36-52.15%). The processing treatments showed significant effect (P≤0.05) on each parameter. Six (6) anti-nutrients (Saponin: 2.45%, Phytic acid: 3.15%, Tannin: 1.02%, Oxalate: 1.48%, Phenol: 0.34%, Trypsin Inhibitor: 11.53Tu/g) were determined in the raw seed. The six processing treatments given to the seed showed a general reduction trend on these six anti-nutrients at different rates and levels. From the results in Table 3 and 4, autoclaving was the best processing method for phytic acid, and phenol while cooking was the best processing method for tannin, trypsin inhibitor, saponin and oxalate.

Keywords: Anti – Nutrients, Canavalia plagiosperma piper, Proximate, autoclaving, cooking

MICROBIAL COMPOSITION, ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY AND PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF POPULAR IMPORTED POWDERED INFANT MILK FORMULAS SOLD IN ADO EKITI, NIGERIA (Published)

The study was carried out to determine the microbial and proximate composition ofpopular imported infant milk formulas in retail market at Ado-Ekiti. A total of six popularcommercial infant milkpoducts were purchased from the main market in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria, and evaluated for microbial composition: total bacterial, coliform and fungal counts. Their proximate components were also determined. The total bacterial count ranged from 0.6×103 to 0.9×104 CFU/ml, with mean value of 3.4x103CFU/g, the total coliform ranged from 0.2×103 to 0.6×104 CFU/ml, with the mean value of 1.7 x 103CFU/g and the total fungal countranged from 0.2×103 to 0.5×104 CFU/ml, with the mean value of 0.9 x103CFU/g. Enteric bacteria and mycotoxigenic fungi were isolated from the formulas. Having subjected all the bacteria isolates to antibiotic susceptibility test, they all showed multiple antibiotic resistanceindex. The fat content ranged from 10mg/100g to 27.7mg/100g with mean value of 17.8mg/100mg; protein content, 1.5mg/100mg with mean value of 10.68mg/100mg and carbohydrate content ranged from 7.2mg/100mg with the mean value of 50.76 mg/100g. However ash, moisture and fibre contents of all the samples were insignificant.This study depicted the possibility of microbial contamination in infant milk formula supposedly sterile.

Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Infant milk formula, Microbial count, Proximate

FLAVOUR EXTRACTION FROM MONODORA MYRISTICA AND TETRAPLEURA TETRAPTERA AND PRODUCTION OF FLAVOURED POPCORN FROM THE EXTRACT (Published)

Monodora myristica and Tetrapleura tetraptera are cherished in many Nigerian dishes. However, these spices are still of low industrial and commercial value, hence the need to incorporate them into new food products. The ground samples of both spices were evaluated for proximate composition and sugar concentrations (Sucrose, fructose, and glucose) of T.tetraptera. The proximate composition of M.myristica, was found to be 3.48±0.01% moisture, 4.52±0.07% ash, 47.09±0.33% fat, 8.38±0.09% crude fibre, 27.57±0.10% crude protein, and 8.96±0.02% carbohydrate corresponding values for T.tetraptera were found to be 6.0±0.02% moisture, 4.90±0.03% ash, 24.33±0.05% fat, 3.30±0.12% crude fibre, 18.69±0.19% crude protein, and 42.78±0.01% carbohydrate. The T.tetraptera was also found to have appreciable concentrations of the sucrose, fructose and glucose sugars. The relative abundance of oil, hence, essential oil, justifies the use of the spices as sources of flavourings. Both ground spice samples were extracted separately with water and ethanol. The flavour extracts were used to season popcorn and the acceptability evaluated using sugar flavoured popcorn as control. The water extracts of both spices were preferred compared to their ethanol extracts. The results obtained confirm that flavouring agents can be derived from M.myristica and T.tetraptera for industrial and commercial use.

Keywords: Proximate, Spices, Sugar, extract, flavor, popcorn

INVESTIGATION ON THE MEDICINAL AND NUTRITIONAL POTENTIALS OF SOME VEGETABLES CONSUMED IN EKITI STATE, NIGERIA (Published)

Nine medicinally important vegetables consumed in Ekiti State, Nigeria were analyzed to determine their proximate and phytochemical contents using standard analytical procedure. These vegetables are Corchorus. olitorious L., Cnidoscolus acontifolius Mill., Vernonia amygdalina L., Cucurbita pepo L., Ocimum gratissimum L., Senecio biafrae Olive & Heirn., Moringa oleifera L., Telfaria occidentalis Hook. F. and Hibiscus asper Hook. F.. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of reducing sugar in all the plant samples analyzed. Saponins and tannins were discovered in four of the plant samples. Seven of the nine plants have philobatannins and cardiac glycosides while alkaloids and steroids were detected in two samples. Anthroquinine was absent in all the vegetable plants. Quatitative phytochemical analysis further revealed reducing sugar, tannins, flavonoids, saponins alkanoids and phenols composition in different proportions, with values ranging from 141.88 mg/100g to 210.07 mg/100g, 44.05 mg/100g to 70.89 mg/100g, 11.71 mg/100g to 41.08 mg/100g, 0.76 mg/100g to 5.88 mg/100g, 163.77 mg/100g to 269.86 mg/100g, and 110.43 mg/100g to 116.68 mg/100g respectively. The percentage proximate values for moisture content, ash, crude fat, crude protein crude fibre and carbohydrate content in the leaves ranged from 50.20% to 88.30%, 7.67% to 10.17%, 1.53% to 4.99%, 13.70% to 24.90%, 10.10% to 21.81% and 40.99% to 53.04% respectively. The results of the study lend credence to the significance of the nine vegetables in the treatments and prevention of various ailments and diseases. Furthermore, high protein, fibre, carbohydrates and low fat contents justify their nutritional importance in human daily diet.

Keywords: Phytochemical, Proximate, Vegetables, medicinal plants

CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF ARIL CAP OF AFRICAN OAK (AFZELIA AFRICANA) SEED (Published)

African oak is one of the underutilized legumes in Nigeria. Information on various parts of this legume is required to enhance its utilization in foods and food products. Feeding of fowls with the flour made from the aril cap of the seed showed no harmful effect on them. The flour was then analyzed for chemical properties. Proximate analysis showed that the cap was appreciable in protein (5.69%), fat (18.5%), carbohydrates (63.91%), and fibre (5.4%) but low in ash (1.5%). The value of each of the anti – nutrients analyzed was below the lethal level. Although the cap was found to be low in ash content, it had appreciable amounts of some essential elements. These are sodium (7.10±1.00), potassium (148.0±0.10), calcium (7.02±0.00), magnesium (109.12±1.02 ppm), phosphorus (11.20±1.10 ppm), and iron (0.25±0.02mg/g).The vitamin components of the cap determined were A (234.7±0.00µg/g), C (4.0±1.00mg/100g), E (1.1±0.02mg/100g) and the B – vitamins; B1, B2, B6 and B12 (2.0±1.01, 33.0±0.11, 4.3±1.00 and 4.8±0.10)mg/100g, showing good amounts of the vitamins. Due to high proximate, vitamins, minerals and insignificant anti – nutrient compositions of the aril cap of the African oak seed, it could be used in both human and animal foods. There is therefore a need for food industries and feed formulators to utilize the cap.

Keywords: African Oak, Anti – Nutrients, Minerals, Proximate, Vitamins

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF ANNONA MURICATA LEAVES (Published)

Proximate composition and phytochemical analyses were carried out on the leaves of Annona muricata using standard methods. The result of the proximate composition showed that the leaves contained 88.99% dry matter, 11.01% moisture, 25% crude protein, 14.96% ash, 22.20% crude fiber, 21.22 % fat and 16.62% carbohydrate contents. The phytochemicals detected in the ethanolic leaf extracts were flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycoside, tannins, triterpenoid, saponin and reducing sugar. The findings indicate that Annona muricata leaves is a potential source of highly nutritious feed stuff and phytomedicine. They are of nutritional, clinical and veterinary relevance considering the diverse ethnopharmacological uses of the plant in different parts of the world

Keywords: Annona muricata, Ethanol, Proximate, leaves, phytochemicals