Tag Archives: Proximate Composition

Proximate Composition of Some Common Hot Smoked Freshwater Fish Species Using Different Packaging Materials (Published)

Three Different packaging materials of (37cm x 25cm) size (Sealed Transparent Polythene Bag (STPB), Sealed Paper Bag (SPB), Open Mouth Polythene Bag (OMPB)) were used for each of Oreochromis niloticus, Clarias gariepinus and Mormyrus rume. Twenty fish samples per species (averaging 250gm) collected from Asejire Dam, Ibadan were hot smoked for 36hours at an average temperature of 100oC. Six fish of each species were packaged hot and stored for 12 weeks. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between the proximate composition of the fish treatments assessed. SPB had the best Crude Protein (CP) of 51.94±0.04% for C. gariepinus (SPBC) and least in M. rume (SPBM) (48.86±0.06%). The fresh fish CP of 29.40±0.04% (C. gariepinus) was condensed to 50.93±0.03% (initial smoked) and ranged between 51.94±0.04% (SPBC) to 52.86±0.02% (OMPBC). SPB packaging was the best for all the three fish samples in the study, C. gariepinus and O. niloticus stored better than M.rume.

Keywords: Hot smoked, Proximate Composition, cold smoked, packaging material

Effect of Fermentation Time and Blending Ratio on Nutrients and Some Anti Nutrient Composition of Complementary Flour (Published)

Most complementary foods used in low income households are often characterized by low nutrient density, poor protein quality, low mineral bioavailability, and low energy. Fermentation and blending are an easily applicable approach to improve the nutrient content and mineral bioavailability of such complementary foods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop nutritionally adequate complementary flour with a safe level of antinutrients. Three fermentation times (0, 24, and 36 hr) and four blends of  composite flour consisting of maize, haricot bean, and cooking banana, respectively, in the proportion of 65:20:15, 60:30:10, 50:35:15, 30:60:10  were used in the formulation with 100% maizeas control. Fermentation causes significant (P˂0.05) reduction in moisture from 9.00 to 6.59%, ash from 2.31 to 1.75%, crude fiber from 5.05 to 3.21%, iron from 5.14 to 4.21mg/100g, calcium from 54.42 to 43.75 mg/100g, condensed tannin from 46.93 to 31.32 mg/100g,  phytate from 70.24 to 36.99 mg/100. On the other hand anincrement of crude fat from 5.12 to 6.43%,  protein  from 13.44  to 14.98%, total carbohydrate  from 70.14  to 72.07%,   energy from 380.39 to 398.83 Kcal/100g, zinc  from 4.41 to 5.24 mg/100g, Vitamin C from 3.99  to 5.75 mg/ml were recorded as fermentation time increased. The proximate composition of composite flour ranged from 1.19 to 2.87% for ash, 6.93 to 7.50% for moisture, 5.31 to 6.23% for crude fat, 2.71 to 5.71% for crude fiber, 9.35% to 18.28% for protein, 66.04 to 77.16 % for carbohydrate and 385.11 to 395.28 Kcal/100g for energy value. Substitution of haricot bean and cooking banana to maize flour increased in (mg/100g) calcium content from 27.80 to 61.43, iron from 3.50 to 5.69, zinc from 3.07 to 6.24, phytate from 2.04 to107.21 and condensed tannin from 1.44 to 74.60 in formulated composite flour. Vitamin C content of complementary flour increased from 2.97 to 5.55 mg/ml as cooking banana proportion level increased. Based on  the present  finding  fermentation and substitution of maize with haricot bean and cooking  banana could be,  recommended  in the production of nutritious  complementary food  for older infants and young children.

Keywords: Antinutrients, Minerals, Proximate Composition, composite flour

Chemical Composition of Some Conventional Fishes Obtained in Asejire Dam, Egbeda Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

Freshly caught freshwater fish samples of three conventional fishes Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822), Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and Parachanna obscura (Gunther, 1861) were purchased from Asejire Dam in Egbeda Local Government Area of Oyo State Nigeria in April 2017. Fishes were degutted, washed and processed using steam-cooking, oven-drying, kiln-drying and raw as control. Samples were divided into four equal portions of 500g each and transported in ice to the Central Research Laboratory, Federal University of Technology, Akure for Proximate analysis. Free Fatty Acid was also determined according to the methods of AOAC, 2005. Crude fat estimation was done using the Folch Method. Minerals were obtained by Dry–ashing the fish samples at 550oC and determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Perkin–Elmer Model 403, Norwalk CT). Potassium was determined by flame photometer (Corning, UK Model 405), [AOAC, 1980] and Phosphorus by the vanadomolybdate calorimetric method. Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) were conducted while statistical significance (P < 0.05) was determined by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with SPSS version 10. Ducan multiple range test was used to determine significant differences between the means. The results showed that the moisture contents were highest (72.43%) in raw C. gariepinus and lowest (7.23%) in kiln-smoked C. gariepinus. Ash content was highest (9.26%) in kiln-smoked C. gariepinus and lowest (0.89%) in steamed-cooked C. gariepinus. Kiln-smoked C. gariepinus had the highest fat content (29.72%) and raw C. gariepinus recorded the lowest (0.86%) fat. The crude fiber was present in P. obscura and conspicuously absent in other species. Crude protein content ranged from 73.40% in kiln-smoked P. obscura to 17.31% in raw C. nigrodigitatus. Carbohydrate was highest (12.82%) in steamed-cooked C. gariepinus and lowest (0.45%) kiln-smoked C. nigrodigitatus. Free Fatty Acid was highest (1.90%) in steamed-cooked P. obscura but lowest (0.92%) in kiln-smoked C. gariepinus and steamed-cooked C. nigrodigitatus respectively. fiber content was absent in all the species except P. obscura that has low fiber content. the above reveals that moisture, ash, crude protein, fat, fiber, Carbohydrate, and Free Fatty Acid were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the treatment. Minerals contents of all the species subjected to different processing methods were within tolerable levels needed for optimal growth and development. Cadmium was not detected in all the fishes irrespective of the processing method. The above reveals that Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca, and K were not significantly (p<0.05) affected by the processing methods. The Mean value of treatment in C. gariepinus is similar to C. nigrodigitatus but significantly (p<0.05) lesser than P. obscura. Based on the findings of this study, Kiln-smoking is the best processing method and P. obscura has the highest protein content. Its culture could be initiated through research efforts to boosts its availability at an affordable price. The finding of this research will be useful to the consumers in choosing fish based on their nutritional values rather than taste, appearance, norms and other physical features.


Keywords: Asejire, Minerals, Processing Methods, Proximate Composition, conventional fishes

Proximate and Mineral Composition of Some Commercially Important Fishes in Jebl Awlia reservoir, Sudan (Published)

The proximate and mineral composition of the flesh of six commercially important fish species (Lates niloticus , Bagrus bayad , Oreochromis niloticus, Synodontis schall, Labeo niloticus and Hydrocynus froskalii) from Jebl Awlia reservoir, which represent different grades of preference to the Sudanese consumers, were studied to assess their nutritional values in order to gain the knowledge of the risk and benefits associated with the indiscriminate consumption of these fish species. Protein content was in the range (71.46% -89.13 %) in the fish samples, crude fat was (6.34 % – 9.66 %) while moisture and ash were (75.33% -79.33 %) and (3.83 % -7.07 %) respectively. Minerals included potassium (200.0-774.0ppm), calcium (195.0-246.0ppm), sodium (184.0-211.0ppm), magnesium (144.0-105.0ppm) and phosphorus (90.0-240.0ppm) while iron and zinc were present in trace amounts.  Levels of mineral elements in fish species were within WHO recommended limit. The data showed that the fishes are of high nutritional value and good source of proteins and minerals.

Keywords: Mineral, Nile fishes and Sudan, Proximate Composition


The experiment was laid out in Complete Randomized design with three repeats. Chickpea varieties (KK3 and KC98), Storage interval (00, 20, 40 and 60 days) and Water activity (control, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 aw) were considered as factor 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Both cultivars were collected from Agricultural Research Station, Karak. Initial analysis of water activity and construction of moisture sorption isotherms was done for the samples. Henceforth50 gram of each sample was modified for water activity and storage. The modified sample was then analyzed for proximate composition and fungal count using the respective procedure. Results obtained for various parameters indicated a significant effect of the treatments on chickpea varieties. In proximate composition a net increase in % moisture content and % ash was observed however % fat and % protein showed a significant decrease. % fiber and nitrogen free extract showed a non significant effect for aw and storage time. It was observed that all the factors alone and their interaction significantly affected the total fungal count

Keywords: Chickpea (Cicer Arientium L.), Nitrogen Free Extract, Proximate Composition, Storage Interval., Total Fungal Count, Water Activity