Quality Characteristics Of Cakes Prepared From Wheat And Unripe Plantain Flour Blends Enriched With Bambara Groundnut Protein Concentrate (Published)
Cakes were produced from the substitution levels of wheat/plantain flour blends (0 – 100% and 0 – 70%), respectively and enriched with 0 – 30% levels of Bambara groundnut protein concentrate (BGPC). Quality characteristics of the resultant product was analysed to ascertain its sensory, physical and chemical properties. Acceptable cakes were produced from 70% wheat flour, 20% plantain flour and 10% BGPC with regards to colour which compared favourably with sample A (100% WF) except F and G samples which differs significantly with other samples. The texture of the cakes was also acceptable but F and G samples (6.5 and 6.4), respectively shows significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to others. The taste and overall acceptability were not significantly different at all levels of BGPC enrichment compared to sample A. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in all the samples in terms of the height except sample B with the value of 2.5cm. Highest weight of 194.2g was observed for sample B which was significantly different (p < 0.05) compared to other samples. Increase in BGPC further improved the volume and specific volume of the cake to 524cm3 and 3.19cm3/100g (sample G), respectively. A reduction in the values of carbohydrate, moisture and energy content of the cakes were observed at increased levels of protein concentrate. Protein content of the cakes was observed to improve progressively at increasing levels of enrichment and showed significant differences up to sample D (10.4%) while the highest protein value was reported at sample G (13.2%) with 30% protein concentrate. This confirms that the developed cakes have a better nutritional value than the control and could be used to combat protein energy – malnutrition.
PRODUCTION OF FLOUR TYPES FROM BLACK BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS) AND EFFECT OF PH AND TEMPERATURE ON FUNCTIONAL PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE FLOURS (Published)
The Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds were processed into full fat flour, defatted flour, protein concentrate and protein isolate. The physico-chemical and functional properties of some of the flour samples were investigated. The effects of pH and temperature on some functional properties of the samples were also examined. The protein content of the concentrate and isolate had a higher value of 47.50% and 78.01% respectively compared with full fat and defatted flour that had 22.70 ± 0.00% and 24.51± 0.01% respectively. The protein concentrate and isolate have no fat and fibre content. The protein, carbohydrate, moisture, fat and fibre content had significant difference on different flour samples at p<0.05. The water absorption capacity had significant difference on the defatted and full fat flour at p<0.05. The effect of temperature on the water absorption of the flours increased with increasing temperature. There is decrease in wettability with increase in temperature as well foaming capacity which increased with increasing temperature. The effect of pH had higher wettability and foaming capacity. pH lowered water absorption and swelling index of the defatted and full fat flour. The black bean flour had good functional properties and thereby can be used in the food system.