Tag Archives: Protection

Analysis of Active Fire Protection Measures in Garki Model Market of the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria (Published)

Fire outbreak in market places is a recurring issue in Nigeria, and it is a leading causes of lives and properties loss in Nigerian markets. In order to curtail this problem, an evaluation of active fire protection measures in Garki model market of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Nigeria was conducted with the aim of generating guidelines that can reduce the spread of fire outbreaks in Nigerian markets. There are 1,430 sales points in Garki model market. Systematic sampling method was adopted for this study and it was applied at every 5th interval of sales points, in order to get the sample size; as a result of this, 287 sales points were selected. The primary research data were questionnaires administered to the sales people, and the direct observations of the current conditions of the market; likewise, 20 different focus group discussions were organised for the selected sales people. Also, interview questions were administered to the managing company of the market. Among the results are: fire protection devices in the market are not adequate; all the fire hose reels in the market are not in good condition; most of the sales people in the market do not know how to operate firefighting equipment because they do not respond to calls for training on how to use them. Among the recommended guidelines are: the adequacy and functionality of fire protection devices should be ensured by the government of Nigeria and the management authorities of markets in Nigeria; training for the sales people should be enforced by the management authorities of markets in Nigeria, in order to ensure that the sales people know how to operate firefighting equipment.

Keywords: Fire, Guidelines, Nigeria, Protection, markets

The Effects of Political Factors on Public Service Motivation: Evidence from the Lebanese Civil Service (Published)

The widespread infusion of pro-market and business management principles into the public sector has impeded the behaviour of civil servants who are motivated by intrinsic motives, not external ones. Besides, the infusion of such principles caused great threats to basic values of the civil service, like equity, fairness, justice, accountability, impartiality, political neutrality, public welfare and other values related to the public sector. From here, public service motivation (PSM) emanates as a reaction against these principles/techniques in the civil service. PSM has been studied in different developed countries; however, it was almost ignored in developing countries, especially Arab states. This study focuses on two significant under theorized areas: the conceptualization of PSM in the Lebanese civil service, and the identification of an external dimension (political factors) and its role in facilitating or obstructing the development of this construct.

Keywords: Consociationalism, Overstaffing, Patronage, Politics, Protection, Public Management, Public Service Motivation, Unqualified

The Necessity of Setting up A Banking Commission for the Protection of Financial Consumers in Republic of Congo -Lesson from Chinese Banking Commission Regulatory (Published)

Since the subprime crisis of 2008, financial consumer protection has become a hot topic all over the world. This is how, in certain countries, governments are still looking for an appropriated mechanism to improve the protection of financial consumers. It is the case of the Republic of Congo where financial consumers are defenseless. They are victims of bad practices from financial institutions. The embezzlements of depositor funds is currently a common phenomenon due to the shortcomings encountered by the Banking Commission of Central Africa. This situation has created a confidence crisis between financial consumers and financial institutions. Nowadays, people are keeping money in households and using informal means to get financial services. Which is causing significant economic and social consequences. This is how we have oriented our research study on the legal mechanisms established by the Chinese authorities through the China’s Banking Commission Regulatory set-up in 2003. In this paper, the authors present the vulnerable state of financial consumers in Congo and demonstrate the inefficiency of the Banking Commission of Central Africa, show the progresses made by the China Banking Commission Regulatory, and recommend the setting-up of such a commission in Republic of Congo.

Keywords: Consumer, Financial Consumers, Protection, financial institutions

The Necessity of Setting up A Banking Commission for the Protection of Financial Consumers in Republic of Congo -Lesson from Chinese Banking Commission Regulatory (Published)

Since the subprime crisis of 2008, financial consumer protection has become a hot topic all over the world. This is how, in certain countries, governments are still looking for an appropriated mechanism to improve the protection of financial consumers. It is the case of the Republic of Congo where financial consumers are defenseless. They are victims of bad practices from financial institutions. The embezzlements of depositor funds is currently a common phenomenon due to the shortcomings encountered by the Banking Commission of Central Africa. This situation has created a confidence crisis between financial consumers and financial institutions. Nowadays, people are keeping money in households and using informal means to get financial services. Which is causing significant social and economic consequences. This is how we have oriented our research study on the legal mechanisms established by the Chinese authorities through the China’s Banking Commission Regulatory set-up in 2003. In this paper, the authors present the vulnerable state of financial consumers in Congo, and demonstrate the inefficiency of the Banking Commission of Central Africa, show the progresses made by the China Banking Commission Regulatory, and recommend the setting-up of such a commission in Republic of Congo

Keywords: Consumer, Financial Consumers, Protection, financial institutions

Role of Soft Law in Environmental Protection: An Overview (Published)

One of the key features of international law is the outstanding progress of law governing the environment in recent times. From a very reticent start with about no law at law, the global environmental law has developed an enormous complicated field encircling numerous treaties, declarations, general principles, and customary international law rules. It is not clandestine that this significant growth is due to a considerable extent, to the role played by the soft law instruments. Soft law is by its nature the enunciation of a norm in a non-binding written form and is considered to be the charters, resolutions, declarations or recommendations of world community that is not meant to be as binding as the international treaties. It is a core source of international law that has emerged and developed rapidly in the modern era of globalization, particularly to knob the sensitive issues, e.g., trade and commerce, protection of human rights, conservation of environment and so on. Though the idea of soft law has existed for years, scholars have attained at no consensus as to why do states regulate soft law or whether soft law is of a consistent logical category. To some extent, this perplexity replicates a profound diversity in the categories of global agreements and strategic situations that produce them. Despite it is accepted that soft law is a latent device in harmonizing the regime created by hard law and plays a key role in achieving fixed goals regarding the implementation of global environmental law. This article strives to provide a detailed definition of soft law as well as point outs its emergence and development. It also illustrates the legal status, impact, significance, and challenges of soft law. Furthermore, this research focuses on the role of soft law instruments in the conservation of global environment.

Keywords: Environment, Protection, Soft Law, Violation

Strategies for Environmental Protection against Food Packaging Wastes in Enugu State (Published)

Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organizational or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the natural environment and humans. Food packaging is an essential medium for preserving the food quality and minimising food wastage. When packaging waste is not properly handled or disposed, they have adverse or harmful effect on human health and also constitute environment, social and economic hazard. The study focused on the strategies for environmental protection against food packaging waste in Enugu state. Specifically, the study was designed to find out how recycling, reusing of food packaging wastes. A survey design was used for the study and questionnaire was used for data collection. The population of the study was 300 workers of Enugu State Waste Management Authority (ESWAMA). The data collected were analysed using mean and frequency, hypothesis was tested using chi square at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the study showed that; recycling, reusing of food packaging wastes help in the environmental protection in Enugu state. It was recommended that; entrepreneurship should be encouraged in the area of recycling and reusing of food packaging wastes. It was also recommended that Enugu state government should encourage companies to design their product for re-use, recyclability and material reduction and those individuals should be encouraged to be environmental friendly.

Keywords: Environmental, Food, Packaging, Protection, Strategies., Wastes

Influence of Online Security, Protection, Website Credibility and Previous After Sales Experience on the Intention to Purchase Online (Published)

Current study seeks to induce the influence of the various factors like online security, protection, website credibility and previous after sale experience on intention to purchase online. Detailed literature review was done and conceptual linkage of various factors has been drawn on the basis of delve study, critical review and findings relationship that postulated in the previous literature. Study concludes that online security system, website credibility and previous after sales experience significantly influence the intention to purchase online

Keywords: Intention to Purchase Online, Online Security, Protection, Website Credibility, after sales Experience