Ethnic-Based Political Parties: Challenges And Prospects For National Unity Of Ethiopia In The Post 1991 (Published)
The aim of the paper is to investigate the challenges and prospects of ethnic-based politics on national unity of Ethiopia. To address the objectives of the study, the researcher employed qualitative approach with case study as study design and used primary and secondary data sources. Primary data was collected from the key informant interview and FGDs. Secondary data was collected from different books, reports, journals, published and unpublished proclamations, conference papers, dissertations and FDRE constitution. In this study the researcher has been used purposive sampling and thematic analysis method based on the objectives of the study. With the view of ensuring unity with diversity the finding of the study has revealed that ethnic-based political parties have daunting challenges for national unity. In this regard, they are playing in the politicizing of ethnicities, ethnic autonomy conflicts and intra-regional boundary conflicts and self-determination and secessionists feeling were discussed on the challenges of national unity for the country. Despite the negative impacts there appeared to be helped role in the empowerment of minority groups and advocacy of culture of ethnic groups in Ethiopia. Consequently, to realization of national unity of Ethiopia, the possible tools have been investigated: the constitutional and electoral reform, the intra-regional boundary demarcation, empowerment of multinational and civic oriented political parties, national consensus and reconciliation. The researcher argues that ethnic politics can also be playing divisive factors which can seriously challenging the mutual existence of Ethiopia and make the quest for national unity difficult. Therefore, it recommends that the view that national unity can be achieved when ethnic politics becomes a tool for the accommodation of diverse political programs.
Micro and small scale enterprises have been accepted worldwide as instrument of economic growth and development. No wonder that government, particularly in the developing countries has made tremendous efforts and establish policies to enhance the capacity of micro and small scale enterprises (MSEs). However, despite government institutional and policies support to enhancing the capacity of small and medium scale enterprises, small and medium scale enterprises has fallen short of expectations. This, then, generated serious concern and skepticism on whether SMEs can bring about economic growth and national developments in Ghana. SMEs are faced with significant challenges that compromise their ability to function and to contribute optimally to the economy. Most business enterprises in Ghana by classification are grouped under micro and small scale enterprises, hence, the scope of study. The phenomenal growth of small and medium enterprise in Ghana is mainly due to the people’s quest to be self-employed and not because it is easy to establish or manage. Financial constraints and lack of management skill hamper the efficient performance of micro and small scale enterprises in Ghana. In view of this, we recommend that government and other non-governmental organization should regularly organize seminars for potential and actual small and medium enterprise operators on how to plan, organize, direct and control their businesses, and that micro, small and medium enterprises operators’ should device effective marketing strategies and good management customers relations at all times.