A Comparative study on Public Procurement Rules (PPR),-2008, Bangladesh and Asian Development Bank (ADB) Procurement Regulations 2017: Strengths and Weaknesses (Published)
This study mainly explores the strengths and weaknesses of ADB procurement regulations 2017 and PPR, 2008 followed by some recommendation. This comparison is done by reviewing the ADB Procurement Regulations 2017 and PPR, 2008. The PPR, 2008 delineates provisions of procurement plan, preparation of tender or proposal, committee, principles of public procurement, tender validity and security, specifications, standard, brand names, approval process, notification of award, contract administration and management, records and audit, joint venture, conflict of interest, complaint and appeal procedure, methods of procurement for goods and related services, works, physical services, processing of procurement, professional misconduct, e-Government procurement. The main spirit of PPR, 2008 are transparency, accountability, equity, fairness and open competition for ensuring value for money by using public fund.There are some strengths and weaknesses in some specific cases of regulations as well. Strengths in ADB procurement regulations include performance based procurement, bonus for performance, community based procurement, encouraging joint venture, procurement plan, pre-qualification, non-compliance, misconduct, settlement of dispute and so on. Using the strengths of ADB procurement regulations, the borrower can achieve the speedy procurement, fairness competition, accountability and value for money. The main weaknesses are absence of sustainable procurement, supply chain issues, whole life cycle cost, sustainability, strategic partnership with supplier and contractors, disposal policy and so on. The guidance in the ADB regulations and PPR, 2008 conform to some aspects and differ in others. Because of weaknesses in both guidelines and rules, sustainability and social aspects are compromised in public procurement which hampers long-term value for money. This paper explores the gaps of internationally accepted procurement standards and practices in PPR of Bangladesh and emphasizes improvement of regulatory framework by fostering strengths of both guidelines and rules in context of Bangladesh.
Relevance of Experiential Learning in the Training of Extension Agents in Nigeria: A Proposal (Published)
Extension agents have been described as essential backbones for extension services. The efficiency of the activities of extension agents as multi-purpose staff is determined by the quality of the training received. In other words, for extension agents to excel in service delivery opportunities must be given for training and retraining in the current trends and issues experientially in extension work. It is against this background that this paper proposes the kind and the nature of training for Nigerian extension workers. To this end, the paper examines the nature of extension work, role and qualities of extension agents, overview of extension agents training in Nigeria with a view to determining the kind of training that will facilitate their work as multi-purpose change agents. The paper concludes that curriculum of Adult and Non-formal Education in Nigerian higher institution of learning should reflect current trends in extension services and be made relevant to the real life situation to enable extension agents discharge their responsibilities as multi-purpose workers. Also opportunities for retraining through seminars, conferences, workshops, etc should be made available to practising extension workers.