Tag Archives: Promotions

Promotions and Consumer Attitudes towards Traditional Medicine Usage in Central Uganda (Published)

In times of modernity and with advancements in modern medicine, usage for traditional medicine (TM) was expected to have reduced. Instead, TM usage has increased and literature points to a number of predictors; among which is the promotions from the Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs). However, little is known of how the art of communication used by THPs in these promotions, is interpreted by the TM users, which in effect could influence their attitudes hence usage of TM. The objective of the study therefore was to examine the influence of the promotional strategies on the consumer attitudes of TM users in Central Uganda. A sample of 369 respondents was drawn using purposive and snowballing sampling techniques and data was analysed using both SPSS/20 and AMOS/23. Results show that promotions highly correlates with consumer attitude (r=.820, p≤.01) and that for every one unit change in promotions, there will be a 27.392 change in consumer attitude. The findings should enable THPs adjust their promotional strategies to be able to take advantage of the most perceived credible promotional strategies, which are highlighted in the study, in order to tap the increasing TM demand. The study was cross-sectional, so there is need for a longitudinal approach should be explored to examine the promotional influence on attitudes across time.

Keywords: Promotions, Traditional Medicine, consumer attitudes, traditional health practitioners

Information Asymmetry: Mediator between Promotions and Usage of Traditional Medicine in Central Uganda (Published)

There has been an overwhelming usage for traditional medicine (TM) in the recent times despite several developments in modern medicine. The increased demand is attributable to a number of factors among which is the aggressive promotions from the Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs). The TM promotions are however, suspected to be incomplete, inconsistent and inadequate which could explain the increased TM usage but the empirical evidence is limited. The study therefore set out to empirically test the mediating effect of information asymmetry on the relationship between promotions and consumer usage behavior of TM. A sample size of 369 participants was determined using Crochran’s formula, and a structured questionnaire was administered using a face-to-face approach. SPSS Statistics 20 was used to run the preliminary analysis while SPSS AMOS 23 was used to test for mediation using bootstrapping. The results showed that information asymmetry is a significant partial mediator in the relationship between promotions and consumer usage behavior of TM users. In conclusion therefore, the study provides empirical evidence of the role of information asymmetries and their effect on TM usage. The findings should aid policymakers in their understanding of the influence of TM promotions and information asymmetry on the majority Ugandans, hence guide the formulation of laws and policies on TM promotions. The main study limitation was the cross-sectional approach used; hence a longitudinal approach should be explored to examine this mediation effect across time. There is also need to understand information asymmetry from the THPs’ perspectives.

Keywords: Information Asymmetry, Promotions, Traditional Medicine, consumer usage behavior, traditional health practitioners


This study examines the Competitors’ Strategies of the five GSM Service providers in Nigeria. Survey questionnaire was administered to the stakeholders in order to collect the data .The purpose of this study is to identify those strategies employed by each network against its competitors and how those strategies succeeded in bringing about the realization of corporate objective, promotion, customers satisfaction and target market. We find that various strategies adopted by the GSM providers provide a significant influence on the promotions, corporate objectives, Target markets and customers satisfaction. In addition we find that there is need for GSM providers to involve in marketing research in order to create their own original promotional strategies (or products) instead of imitating or mimicking strategies by other network. Furthermore, the study recommends that they should continue to lay more emphasizes on the strategies for promotions, customer services, corporate objectives and the target market so as to achieve the organizational goal.

Keywords: GSM services providers, Promotions, Strategies., and customers’ satisfaction, corporate objectives


This study focuses on the experiences of faculty members about the systems of promotions at the University of Education, Winneba, Ghana. Eight (8) senior members were interviewed comprising of four (4) female senior lecturers, two (2) male senior lecturers and two (2) senior administrative staff using a semi structured interview guide. Policy documents governing promotions, annual reports and other institutional publications were examined and analyzed as well as disaggregated statistics on promotions for senior members at the University of Education, Winneba. The findings reveal that even though there are no separate criteria for promotions for female senior members of the University, it seems that female faculty faces unparallel challenges more than the males when it comes to promotions, which the respondents attributed to existence of institutional policies/practices that works to disadvantage women. In effect there are variations in the experiences of female and male faculty members regarding promotions in academia.The study recommended that the criteria for promotion should be reviewed to give serious considerations to the weighting of teaching, vis-à-vis research, in promotion, merit increment, and tenure decisions.

Keywords: Gender Equality, Higher Education, Promotions