Tag Archives: Production

The Making Of Thunderbolt: A Foray into Tunde Kelani’s Film Technique (Published)

Making a film can be seen as a long process of decision making, not just by the director but by all the specialists who work on his or her team. A great many decisions, however, do affect what we see and hear on the screen. There are the artistic choices made by the film makers. What lights will enhance the atmosphere of a love scene? Given the kind of story being told, would it be better to let the audience know what the central character is thinking or to keep him enigmatic? When a scene opens, what is the most economical, understandable way of letting the audience know the time and place? Which is more dramatic, to show an explosion or just have it heard from off screen? The sum total of all such decisions cumulates in a finished film. In this work, we are going to survey all the aspects of the filmmaking process. Our cases study is Tunde Kelani in his award winning production Thunderbolt. The essay will examine his roles as a film director. How he approaches his art from the pre-production stage to the post production stage. Adopting Stanislavsky method acting that proposes that acting must come from inside. That is, actors should feel what they portray.

Keywords: Decision, Directing, Film, Post-Production, Pre-Production, Production, Screenplay, Specialists

Comparative Analysis of System of Rice Intensification and Traditional System of Rice Production in Abi L.G.A, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This study compared the System of Rice Intensification and Traditional System of Rice Production in Abi L.G.A, Cross River State, Nigeria. The specific objectives included the description of socio-economic characteristics of rice farmers in Abi L.G.A, determination of the rate and levels of adoption of SRI, etc. Data were obtained from primary and secondary sources. Two-stage sampling technique was used in the selection of 100 respondents. Descriptive statistics, t-test and Likert scale were employed for analysis. The major findings of the study shows that, majority (78%) were males and 88% of respondents has rice farm sizes ranging from 1-5ha. The rate of adoption was 50% with 4 levels of adoption of the principles of SRI. The t-test analysis revealed t-calculated value of 8.40 greater than t-tabulated. Meaning that adoption of SRI enhanced the income of the adopters. It is recommended that participation of rice farmers during SRI demonstration be encourage.

Keywords: Adoption, Income, Production

Developmental Stages Of the Production of Passive Voice by Children Native Speakers of Jordanian Arabic (Published)

This study aims at investigating the children’s production of passive voice in Jordanian Arabic. It sheds light on the factors that may influence the children’s production of some passive forms in Jordanian Arabic. The sample of the study consists of thirty Jordanian children who belong to five age groups from 3; 0 – 7;11 years old. Each of these groups includes six children with equal number of males and females chosen randomly from an elementary school in Jordan. A production test was given to the children using six pairs of pictures that illustrate the contrast between the active and passive sentences. The findings indicate the nature of the construction of passive in Jordanian Arabic does not have that complexity which may pose difficulties for the Jordanian children in their production of passive voice. The increase in age is accompanied by improvement in the child’s linguistic abilities necessary for the production of passive voice.       

Keywords: Acquisition, Age, Arabic, Passives, Production

Effect of Crop Intensification Program on Maize Production in Nyagatare, Rwanda (Published)

This study was conducted in Nyagatare district located in the Eastern Province of Rwanda. Its objective was to assess the effect of the Crop Intensification program (CIP) on maize production in Nyagatare district.   Improved seeds, Inorganic fertilizers, Extension services and Land Use Consolidation were the major variables for consideration in this study and assessment was made as to the contribution they made to maize production in CIP in the study area .  The study focused on 24 cooperatives with 97 respondents. It used qualitative approaches to generate the opinion of respondents where data was not readily available and also quantitative methods where both primary and secondary data were used. Primary data was collected using questionnaires from random sample of 97 farmers, and it considered the socio-economic characteristics of farmers while Secondary data was collected from different sources, like Ministry of Agriculture, District offices, Agriculture Sector working Group (ASWG) reports , books, reports and internet.. The research used correlation and regression techniques  Research findings revealed that youth and educated people’s engagement in agricultural activities  is minimal, that Extension services has not influenced maize production significantly and also that men constitute a bigger proportion of the agriculture work force than women  creating a gender gap in the sector. Improved seeds influence significantly maize production more than other independent variables in this study

Keywords: Agricultural inputs, Agro-dealers, Cooperatives, Crop Intensification program, Extension services, Land Use Consolidation, Production, Productivity

Cost and Returns of Paddy Rice Production in Kaduna State (Published)

As a result of increasing population growth and urbanization, there is a high and increasing demand for rice, this necessitates the high attention for its production. This research was conducted to determine the profitability considering the cost and returns of paddy rice production in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Data for the study were collected from 60 randomly selected paddy rice farmers using a well structured questionnaire and analyzed using the descriptive statistics, the gross margin and net income model. The result showed that 97% were male, 88% married and had an average household size of 10people. It was interesting to realize that all respondents had one form of education or the other and their average farm size was 15ha producing about 3.2tonnes of paddy per hectare. The average variable cost incurred per hectare was estimated to be $866.3 (N172,400) while the total cost of production was put at $1002 (N199,400) and a gross revenue of $1768.84 ( N352,000) was generated. Paddy rice production in the study area was estimated to have a gross profit $902.51 (N179,600) and a net returns of $766.83 (N152,600). The study however concluded that paddy rice production in the study area is a profitable enterprise and it also recommended that consistent government policies that would favour increase in paddy production, market information, extension service delivery, input subsidization and credit facilities be implemented.

Keywords: Costs, Kaduna, Paddy Rice, Production, Profitability, Returns

An Analysis of Energy Consumption Pattern in Wheat Production in District Shaheed Benazir Abad Sindh Pakistan (Published)

Wheat (Triticum aestivium L.) is the main staple food for most of the population and largest grain source o the country. It occupies the central position in formulating agricultural policies. It contributes 13.1 percent to the value added in agriculture and 2.7 percent to GDP. Area and production target of wheat for the year 2012-13 had been set at 9045 thousand hectares and 25 million tons, respectively. Wheat was cultivated on an area of 8805 thousands hectares, showing a decrease of 3.6 percent over last year’s area of 9132 thousand hectares. However, a bumper wheat crop of 24.2 million tons has been estimated with 3.9 percent increase over the last year’s crop of 23.3 million tons. The prospects for wheat harvest improved with healthy fertilizer off-take and reasonable rainfall during pre-harvesting period. Energy is a necessary of life for human beings all over the world due to its function in strengthening the security and contentment of the people. Energy demand is growing with the passage of time due to infrastructural and industrial development. Energy is required to perform all the human activities. It is need for food preparation, water heating and cooling, for lighting, for production of goods etc. The study was focused on all types of energy (fossil fuels, chemicals, animals dung, animate etc). A sample of 60 farmers was selected from study area. A pre tested questioner was used to collect data from selected respondents through personal interviews. Descriptive statistics and Cobb-Douglas production function was applied to analyze the data. Result shows that  wheat   farmer achieved highest amount of net energy which was calculated as small, medium and large farmers is 1368336.88, 1698003.79 and1702527.75 MJ/acre respectively. In production of wheat large, medium and small farmers achieve amount of net energy which was calculated 41525.06, 38590.99, 39095.33 MJ/acre. The impact of various energy inputs on yield was studied. The share of various energy types in total cost of production was estimated. Commercial energy (diesel and electricity) consumed highest amount of energy in production of wheat.

Keywords: Energy consumption, Production, Wheat

Employment and Production of Handicrafts in Jammu and Kashmir: An Economic Analysis (Published)

Handicraft has emerged as an important and one of the important contributors to the state’s economy. There are various handicrafts of Jammu and Kashmir which are famous not in domestic level but both in national and international markets. From the good old day handicraft had been the major economic activity of the state. In order to make our handicraft sector on the right track on which more and more production and employment is generated government should have to take care of this sector.

Keywords: Employment, Production, economic activity, handicraft

Transforming University Knowledge Production towards the Promotion of Inclusive Development in Nigeria (Published)

Nigeria has been seemingly inelastic to global changes in terms of joining the post-industrial revolution.   Renaissance of knowledge in Africa was identified as a potent factor for economic growth by World Bank (IBRD).  This factor could create opportunities to leap frogging in selected areas of economic growth and resolution of social problems in the region.  Hence, this study examined transforming university knowledge production towards the promotion of inclusive development in Nigeria.  This survey design study  provided a baseline information for supporting university knowledge-driven inclusive economic growth and equitable income distribution in order to promote inclusive development in the nation.  Secondary data from National Bureau of statistics and other data sources were obtained to answer three research questions raised in the study.  Using the simple descriptive statistics, results obtained revealed low capacity in university knowledge production which yielded a low Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita and low knowledge Economy Index (KEI), but with high inclusive growth in Nigeria.  The market-driven inclusive growth resulted in not having specific targets such as employment generation and income distribution.  Therefore, it was recommended among others that government should create enhanced social and education environment. This will ensure sustained growth as well as equity/ fairness in income distribution towards the promotion of inclusive development.

Keywords: Development, Knowledge, Production, University, inclusive

Effect of Crop Intensification Program on Maize Production in Nyagatare, Rwanda. (Published)

This study was conducted in Nyagatare district located in the Eastern Province of Rwanda. Its objective was to assess the effect of the Crop Intensification program (CIP) on maize production in Nyagatare district.   Improved seeds, Inorganic fertilizers, Extension services and Land Use Consolidation were the major variables for consideration in this study and assessment was made as to the contribution they made to maize production in CIP in the study area .  The study focused on 24 cooperatives with 97 respondents. It used qualitative approaches to generate the opinion of respondents where data was not readily available and also quantitative methods where both primary and secondary data were used. Primary data was collected using questionnaires from random sample of 97 farmers, and it considered the socio-economic characteristics of farmers while Secondary data was collected from different sources, like Ministry of Agriculture, District offices, Agriculture Sector working Group (ASWG) reports , books, reports and internet.. The research used correlation and regression techniques  Research findings revealed that youth and educated people’s engagement in agricultural activities  is minimal, that Extension services has not influenced maize production significantly and also that men constitute a bigger proportion of the agriculture work force than women  creating a gender gap in the sector. Improved seeds influence significantly maize production more than other independent variables in this study .

Keywords: Agricultural inputs, Agro-dealers, Cooperatives, Crop Intensification program, Extension services, Land Use Consolidation, Production, Productivity

Trend of Wheat Production in Lesotho and Its Determinants: Five Decades and Beyond (Published)

Wheat being the third most important cereal crop in Lesotho, after Maize and Sorghum, has been decreasing in production, area planted and yield. This decline has not been determined using statistical analysis. The objectives of the study were to (1) determine trend in wheat production, area planted and yield, (2) estimate regression coefficients of factors affecting wheat and (3) establish correlation coefficient of these factors. Time series data from 1961 to 2013 on total production of wheat, area planted, yield, rainfall and temperature were captured from FAOSTAT (2013). GENSTAT software was perform statistical analysis. The results revealed a dramatic decline in production, area planted and yield of 77%, 82% and 33.16%, respectively. Regression analysis revealed significant difference (p>0.01) among the regrsessors and each regressor had elasticity coefficient influencing wheat production. Correlation analysis showed that yield was highly correlated (r =0.6678) with area and moderately correlated with temperature (r =0.363) and rainfall (r = 0.2011).

Keywords: Correlation, Lesotho, Production, Regression, Wheat Trend

Comparative Analysis of System of Rice Intensification and Traditional System of Rice Production in Abi L.G.A, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This study compared the System of Rice Intensification and Traditional System of Rice Production in Abi L.G.A, Cross River State, Nigeria.  The specific objectives included the description of socio-economic characteristics of rice farmers in Abi L.G.A, determination of the rate and levels of adoption of SRI, etc. Data were obtained from primary and secondary sources.  Two-stage sampling technique was used in the selection of 100 respondents.  Descriptive statistics, t-test and Likert scale were employed for analysis.  The major findings of the study shows that, majority (78%) were males and 88% of respondents has rice farm sizes ranging from 1-5ha.  The rate of adoption was 50% with 4 levels of adoption of the principles of SRI.  The t-test analysis revealed t-calculated value of 8.40 greater than t-tabulated.  Meaning that adoption of SRI enhanced the income of the adopters.  It is recommended that participation of rice farmers during SRI demonstration be encourage.

Keywords: Adoption, Income, Production

Socio-Economic Factors Affecting ICT Utilization by Youths in Fish Farming In Kaduna State, Nigeria (Published)

Background ICT brings forth new development surfacing in agriculture. Youths need to improve their ICT abilities for the promotion of agriculture. This study was carried out in Kaduna state Nigeria. Objective the broad objective of the study was to determine the socio – economic factors that affect the utilization of ICT in fish production by youth in Kaduna State. Methods 100 youths were randomly selected and administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, regression and correlation analysis. Results The results showed that age, education, pond size, quantity of fish produce and training contributed significantly to ability to use ICT in fish production. Some factors were found to be positively related to ICT utilization. Age, education and training made positive contributions at 5% level of probability. Conclusion It was therefore concluded that youth need resources (education and training) in order to utilize ICT in food production. It is recommended youth need empowerment and training to utilize ICT for food production

Keywords: Age, Education, Empowerment, Pond Size, Production, Training

Employment and Production of Handicrafts in Jammu and Kashmir- An Economic Analysis (Published)

Handicraft has emerged as an important and one of the important contributors to the state’s economy. There are various handicrafts of Jammu and Kashmir which are famous not in domestic level but both in national and international markets. From the good old day handicraft had been the major economic activity of the state. In order to make our handicraft sector on the right track on which more and more production and employment is generated government should have to take care of this sector

Keywords: Employment, Production, economic activity, handicraft

DEVELOPMENT OF A DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING MODEL FOR OPTIMIZING PRODUCTION PLANNING (Published)

Production planning is the backbone of any manufacturing operation, and its main objective is to determine the quantity of products to be produced and inventory level to be carried from one period to the other, with the objective of minimizing the total costs of production and the annual inventory, while at the same time meeting the customers’ demand. A mathematical model was developed for a multi-product problem using Dynamic Programming approach and the solution procedure proposed by Wagner and Whitin was adopted. The model is very useful in solving a problem with multi-stage problem, a particular situation in which there is appreciable variation in average periodic demand and availability of raw materials among the different periods. It also stipulates the minimum quantities of the product to produce per period and the corresponding inventory levels such that total production cost is minimized over the planning periods

Keywords: Cost, Dynamic, Inventory., Minimum, Model, Production

Development of a Dynamic Programming Model for Optimizing Production Planning. (Review Completed - Accepted)

Production planning is the backbone of any manufacturing operation, and its main objective is to determine the quantity of products to be produced and inventory level to be carried from one period to the other, with the objective of minimizing the total costs of production and the annual inventory, while at the same time meeting the customers’ demand. A mathematical model was developed for a multi-product problem using Dynamic Programming approach and the solution procedure proposed by Wagner and Whitin was adopted. The model is very useful in solving a problem with multi-stage problem, a particular situation in which there is appreciable variation in average periodic demand and availability of raw materials among the different periods. It also stipulates the minimum quantities of the product to produce per period and the corresponding inventory levels such that total production cost is minimized over the planning periods

Keywords: Cost, Dynamic, Inventory., Minimum, Model, Production

Effects of Special Rice Project on Rice Production in Kwara State, Nigeria (Published)

The study was carried out to evaluate the impact of the Special Rice Project (SRP) on rice production in Kwara state, Nigeria. Specifically, Edu and Patigi Local Government Areas of Kwara State were purposively selected because of the predominance of rice farming activities in the two local governments in the study area. A stratified random sampling technique of 204 rice farmers was used, where 140 farmers were selected from 6 circles in Patigi LGA comprising 70 participating SRP farmers and another 70 non-participating SRP. Also in Edu LGA, another 64 rice farmers were similarly selected from three extension circle comprising 32 SRP participating farmers and 32 non-participating SRP farmers. The data analyses reveals that SRP participating farmers accessed major rice production inputs at a relatively subsidized price while; non-participating SRP farmers accessed these inputs at higher prices. The result also shows that participating farmers in SRP cultivated on the average, more farm size, recorded higher yields/hectare and had higher average income/annnum than non-participating SRP farmers. The result of t-test analysis indicates a significant difference in the cost of farm inputs used by participating and non-participating farmers in SRP (t=4.537, p<0.05). Also Pearson Correlation result shows significant relationship between farm inputs used and socio-economic status of rice farmers (r=0.223, P<0.05). This study concludes that SRP significantly reduced the cost of farm operation, increased the yield and income of participating farmers. It subsequently recommends the expansion of SRP to cover all categories of rice farmers in the study area.

Keywords: Farm Inputs, Production, Rice Farmers

Air Quality Assessment in the Vicinity of Cement Company (Published)

This study investigated effect of cement production activities and seasons on the concentration of air pollutants such as Total Suspended Particle (TSP), Thoracic Particulates viz respairable and inhalable sizes (PM2.5 and PM10) and gaseous pollutants: Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and Hydrogen sulphide (H2S). The cement company is located in Ogun State, Nigeria between latitude 6Вє 54′ N – 6Вє 55′ N and longitude 3Вє 12′ E – 3Вє 12′ E – 3Вє 13′ E; studied between July – December, 2010. Sampling was carried out at Production plant (starting point), Administrative office (400 m), Ewekoro community (500 m), Cement mill (800 m), Ajobiewe community (1000 m) and Agbesi estate (1500 m). The samplers used were Stage gravimetric sampler (for suspended particulate matters), Tetra multi-gas monitor (CH4, CO and H2S), Multi gas meter, Land Duo (CO2, NO and NOx) and BW, Model 0539, gas alert (SO2). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Test of significance of the means was by the Least Significant Difference and Duncan Multiple Range test. Significant concentrations of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx CO and H2S were observed in the vicinity of Cement Company. Higher concentration of PM was observed in the dry season than wet season. Cement production activities release air pollutants. There is need to reduce the rate of emission during cement production to the lowest minimal level by using air trapping devices.

Keywords: Air, Cement, Production, Quality